This blog has been on hiatus while I work on my annual research summary documents, but I have been paying regular visits to St. James Farm Forest Preserve, the site I monitor and where I soon will begin as volunteer steward. Today’s entry shares some photos from recent weeks.
Winged euonymus adds color to the autumn scene, but is an invasive shrub that will need to be removed at some point.
As leaves come off the trees, bird nests are revealed. This oriole nest had a significant content of synthetic fibers, including fishing line from the nearby ponds. The fuzzy white object hanging below the nest is a fishing lure, the hook not quite visible at this angle.
This silver-spotted skipper still was active on November 16.
The opossum lay dead in the center of a trail, also on November 16. Cause of death was not evident.
Late autumn migrants included this white-crowned sparrow youngster.
The most unusual stopover duck was a female pintail on the east pond.
Another duck worth noting was this male. Accompanied by a female mallard, his huge size and her identity suggest that he may be a mallard-black duck hybrid.
It’s been a busy field season, and I have fallen way behind in blog posts. I’ll catch up eventually, but today will share a smorgasbord of photos from May through July.
This barred owl appeared during a walk through St. James Farm Forest Preserve. I believe I had come close to its nest tree.
Here is the first slender spreadwing I have found at St. James Farm.
Wild yam graces the understory of the St. James Farm forest.
Sporangia on the underside of a lady fern leaf at St. James Farm.
The Lulu Lake Nature Preserve in Walworth County, Wisconsin, has become a favorite site. Here a woodland graces a kame.
An eight-spotted forester provided a photo op in the nature preserve portion of the Round Lake state property in Starke County, Indiana.
This dragonfly I encountered at Houghton Lake in Marshall County, Indiana, was a bit of a puzzler. I eventually concluded it was a somewhat odd widow skimmer, but later changed the ID to slaty skimmer (see comments).
As recent posts have shown, I am transitioning into the singing insects field season. I will be spending less time at St. James Farm over the next four months, though I won’t be ignoring that preserve completely. So here is a collection of recent photos from St. James Farm Forest Preserve.
I was pleased to find that green dragons are scattered throughout the forest.
Both the smooth sweet cicely, shown here, and the hairy sweet cicely are among the late spring forest wildflowers at SJF.
Wild hyacinths are savanna or woods border plants with only a brief blooming period.
The somewhat weedy, open-growing common goat’s beard is a personal favorite.
Earlier in the season I saw a female dot-tailed whiteface in one of the prairie plots. Here is a male on station at the catch-and-release fishing pond.
The grayish fan-foot, aka grayish Zanclognatha, has been abundant in the forest in recent days. The caterpillars live on fallen dead leaves.
This eastern bluebird nestling looks ready to get out into the world.
As Gary and I toured wild places around Culver over the weekend, we found more of interest than sulfur-winged grasshoppers.
Many wildflowers were blooming, including lance-leaved violets at the Winamac State Fish and Wildlife Area.
A number of rapids clubtails worked the sandy power line corridor at Memorial Forest.
One sad note was a road-killed otter.
I had heard that otters have returned to the Tippecanoe River. This one climbed a tributary to reach the Maxinkuckee Wetlands, and became a casualty.
No photo to show for it, but we were impressed by astronomical observations as well. While sampling the variety of Hoosier beers Gary had brought up from Indianapolis, we checked out Mars and Saturn through the spotting scope. Mars, as close as it ever gets to Earth, was a reddish disk. Much farther away, Saturn appeared as a cute little image with the rings nicely visible and separate from the planet’s main mass.
We closed the weekend by attending the local VFW Memorial Day ceremony, and visited the graves of our parents, who passed away two years ago. Then we went our separate ways home.
Spring flowers continue to open at St. James Farm Forest Preserve. Today’s post is a gallery of highlights. On the large scale, I have been delighted to find that black haw is a dominant understory shrub in the central forest.
Black haw is a native Viburnum.
Blooming black haws are prominent in the forest area cleared of invasive shrubs this past winter.
Diverse herbaceous plants are blooming at the ground level.
Jacob’s ladders are common in parts of the forest.
A few declined trilliums also have appeared. The white trilliums have become rarer in DuPage County thanks to people picking them, which kills them. All plants are legally protected on the preserves.
Butterweed is an uncommon and short-lived member of the ragwort group.
This bulbous cress plant is benefitting from last year’s restoration of the stream and its corridor area.
I look forward to many more botanical discoveries as the season progresses.
Spring is advancing in fits and starts, with alternating warm and cool periods, but through it all the plants of St. James Farm Forest Preserve are growing, and many have been blooming. Some of them are familiar, some new to me, but together they are demonstrating an impressive botanical diversity, especially in the forest.
White trout lilies are abundant, but they began to bloom later at SJF than in other area forests.
Swamp buttercups are common throughout.
Virginia bluebells always are a welcome sight this time of year. The ones at St. James Farm probably originated in the estate’s gardens, but have made themselves at home in scattered places well away from there.
Yellow violets, as well as the common blue ones, brighten the forest floor.
Patches of wood anemones are frequent in shady spots.
The botanical connoisseur will want to know about the sedges. Four early ones are blooming now, the common wood sedge, Wood’s stiff sedge, and two more:
There are large patches of common oak sedge in many places.
Long-beaked sedge was a new one for me, as was Wood’s stiff sedge.
More mundane, but adding to the preserve’s diversity, are others worthy of mention.
Common chickweed is an introduced species, at home in the lawns.
Not flowers, or even plants, bracket fungi visually enhance the forest as they grow to produce their spores.
Weather in March at St. James Farm Forest Preserve was variable, but on the whole was relatively warm with frequent rainy periods. At the beginning of the month there was a little lingering snow on the ground, and ponds were frozen, but all of this quickly was gone.
I used my old GPS unit to map my survey routes and to locate positions of previously discovered cavity trees that might harbor a great horned owl nest. One of these indeed proved to hold the nest, and the female still was present on March 25, late enough to indicate that hatched young were being brooded. Two attempts to find displaying woodcocks were unsuccessful, but during the first evening visit on March 17 I heard what I thought was a short call by a barred owl in the eastern portion of the preserve. Scott Meister reported hearing the species in the forest one evening the following week. No pileated woodpecker observations in March, but recent observations in preserves to the north along the West Branch suggest that the bird or birds seen here earlier may be wandering widely. Canada geese were down to small groups and pairs early in the month. By March 31 a nest was under incubation on the small island in the pond below the former house site.
Canada goose incubating on March 31.
Many killdeers were displaying in the restoration project area around the stream early in the month, but these were down to just a few individuals by month’s end. Bird activity generally increased as the season progressed, with the first cowbirds arriving March 8, a pair of hooded mergansers and 2 pairs of wood ducks present in the pond in the NW corner of the preserve for much of the month, sandhill crane flocks frequently passing overhead, a northern flicker and the first golden-crowned kinglets appearing on March 14, tree swallows on March 25, and two pairs of green-winged teals in the restored stream on March 26.
This hooded merganser pair may nest in one of the wood duck boxes at the northwest pond.
A shed antler found on March 17 in the forest near Winfield Road matched the buck photographed in the same area on November 1.
Someone found an old deer skull and propped it against a trailside tree.
The first snake observed on the preserve was a midland brown snake on March 29. That same day several painted turtles were sunning in the eastern pond.
Western chorus frogs began singing on March 11, and ultimately displayed in three locations. The largest number were in the fringes of the eastern pond, and many also were in two temporary ponds in the meadow north of the entrance drive. Numbers of bullfrogs, large and small, had emerged by March 21.
One of the March 21 bullfrogs.
The first butterfly of the year was a mourning cloak observed on March 21. A cabbage white appeared on March 29. The former overwinters in the adult form, the latter as a pupa. Several small brown moths were active on the forest floor on March 31. One was photographed and appears to be a tortricid, close to several similar species of Pelochrista or perhaps Eucosma.
A possible Pelochrista
Silver maples were blooming by March 11, and spring beauties by March 31.
Spring beauties were the first native herbaceous wildflowers to bloom at St. James Farm in 2016.
Restoration clearing of the forest was completed by mid-March, and a new set of stakes presumably marking the new trail route was placed in the final week.
Beginning in the middle of the month, I went through all of St. James Farm Forest Preserve seeking the great horned owl nest. I did not find it, but did create an inventory of 25 large tree cavities where an incubating owl might not be visible from the ground. An additional possibility would be a hawk nest in the dense top of one of the spruces. Twice I saw an owl, presumably the male if they are nesting this year, in the same north central portion of the main forest. In past observations elsewhere, the male usually perched in the vicinity of the nest. I will continue to monitor the suspect cavities, but may need to see branched young later in the season to narrow down possibilities further.
I was able to eliminate this cavity, as it was otherwise occupied.
Some photo processing in the computer makes the raccoon easier to see.
I had not seen or heard a pileated woodpecker on the preserve for more than 6 weeks (though occasionally I heard suspicious loud, spaced tapping sounds), but in the second half of February heard or saw one on three different days. The one close sighting was of a male.
The pileated’s tongue-spear in action.
American coots and large numbers of mallards were a continuing presence on the stream. For much of the month the Canada geese roosting at Blackwell frequently passed over St. James Farm in large numbers, occasionally stopping to graze the lawns and meadow areas. Geese began to break off into pairs as ponds opened up during the last third of February. Interesting bird sightings included a bald eagle flying over, and a hermit thrush on February 16. Migrating sandhill crane flocks began to pass over beginning on the 21st. A small group of white-throated sparrows in the eastern part of the main forest were the first observed on the preserve this year. The first red-winged blackbirds arrived, and eastern bluebirds became a more consistent presence in the last part of February.
This male eastern bluebird seemed to be staking a claim in a corner of the grounds adjacent to a pair of bluebird houses.
Fox squirrels fed heavily from Norway spruce cones in the south forest, and on tree buds elsewhere. Skunk and deer activity was much as described for January. The preserve’s deer minimally are a group of 3 does, a group of 2 deer which occasionally associate with those does, and a single buck. The snow was never deep enough to discourage raccoons. A mink used a den off the south edge of the pond in the preserve’s northwest corner.
Along the way during the owl nest search I found this curiosity.
The deer pelvic bone was well gnawed by rodents.
The bone has been on this buckthorn twig long enough for the twig to grow several long branches.
The large area of restoration brush clearing in the main forest was expanded greatly by District staff, generally following the route of the new trail mapped in the preserve’s master plan. Among the more interesting plants encountered during the owl nest search were two of the most massive black walnuts I have ever seen, and a prickly-stemmed greenbrier (Smilax tamnoides).
My brother Gary and his wife Lisa have moved from the Eastern Shore of Maryland down to coastal North Carolina, and I joined them there for the week around Christmas. Most of our time went into unpacking and some yard work, but there were plenty of moments to explore the surroundings.
One corner of their property extends into a swamp complete with bald cypress “knees.”
Some of the trees also have the iconic southern epiphyte, Spanish moss.
The most charming critter award went to the anoles that climbed the walls, shrubs and yard furniture.
It’s easy to project lots of personality into these little lizards.
Most were wearing their basic brown.
A few switched to green, demonstrating why some call them “chameleons.”
There still were several species of singing insects performing in the unseasonably warm temperatures of those days. I recognized Carolina ground crickets, southern ground crickets (song identical to that of the striped ground cricket of the North), pine tree crickets, and abundant jumping bush crickets. I was left with a mystery, two individuals of a fifth species that sang from lawns after dark. Here is a recording:
Most of the time the spacing between trills was more evenly rhythmic than in this recording.
The recording was made well out in the lawn in front of Gary’s house.
I was able to locate the presumed cricket’s position within a few square inches, but unsuccessful in seeing him. He must have been well concealed in a soil crack or tunnel. At first I thought, from the sound and the habitat, that he must be a ground cricket, but his song was louder than most ground crickets and I have never encountered a ground cricket that sings only after dark. A quick review of ground cricket recordings, and those of other likely cricket groups, in the Singing Insects of North America website, failed to turn up a match. If anyone recognizes this, I would appreciate the tip, but it was great to leave North Carolina with a mystery in hand.