Gray Squirrel Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

For several winters, now, I have been sharing my notes on various species of our vertebrate wildlife. The main idea is to step away from the literature and other second-hand sources, and document what I know about each species from my own observations. At last I have reached the end of the list of dossiers which contain enough information to post here. There may be more in the future, as I add to the limited notes presently in unshared dossiers, but this will be the last for a while. I hope the main point has been clear: to remind you, as well as myself, to pay attention and learn from experience rather than rely on the sometimes limited or misleading second-hand reports (I shouldn’t need to point out that from your perspective, this dossier is itself a second-hand report!)

Squirrel, Gray

Gray squirrel

Gray squirrel

This species is more typical of larger forests and cities. Its relative the fox squirrel is the savanna and small woodlot species, though both can occur together (this one is not found around Culver, Indiana, however). Many notes from the fox squirrel dossier also apply to this one.

27JL77. Gray squirrels fed on unripe red oak acorns at Reineman Sanctuary, Perry County, Pennsylvania. The next day, one was eating Nyssa (black gum) seeds (discarding the fruit).

29JE86. One gray squirrel foraging on the ground in an old pine plantation at Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve, DuPage County, IL. It moved slowly (diagonal walk), nose to the ground, sometimes pushing the nose beneath the litter and walking several inches with the face thus submerged. Stopped and ate 3 small objects. Later investigation of the site revealed small oval shells with tough skins, possibly coccoons, flattened ovals viewed from side with a circular cross section, with one end neatly removed and empty inside.

20OC86. Squirrels in dense brushy old field of Willowbrook Back 40. Sounds, when alarmed, like 2-3 steps or jumps, the last louder, then quiet. Is squirrel getting to bigger shrub or a tree, jumping onto trunk then freezing and watching?

23FE87. Much renewal of nut-digging (removal) past few days (and continued next 10 days or so).

28FE87. Wayne Grove Forest Preserve. Gray squirrel stuffing itself with American elm buds in top of 8″dbh tree. Later another, also in a 5″dbh American elm. Much recent excavation of buried nuts. A third individual ate a few black cherry buds.

6MR87. Squirrel high in a black willow, cutting twigs 4-12 inches long and carrying them one at a time to the top of a major 3-branch crotch high in the tree, where it was stuffing or sewing them into a mass of them.

7AP87. A gray squirrel on the ground responded to chipmunk’s chip-trill at my approach, jumping onto low branch and looking alert.

28SE87. Lots of them on the ground in Willowbrook old field. Old and young of year, both.

23JA88. McDowell Forest Preserve. Gray squirrel dug up shallowly buried hickory nut, cutting a 1.5′-tall elm to get face in close for leverage in digging. Carried nut into tree, spent about 4-5 minutes consuming it, then ate snow off top of branch it was sitting on (about 1′ worth, a powdery, thin 0.5″ wide), went down tree and continued. Paused and looked back at me.

20MR88. A gray squirrel at Meacham Grove gathering dry leaves from ground, stuffing them into its mouth with its paws then taking them into cavity nest up in old white oak. Also gathering from among the few leaves still attached to the tree itself.

10AP88. Touched a squirrel at Hidden Lake Forest Preserve (tips of his tail hairs as he “hid” on the other side of a tree trunk barely too big for him to look around).

17AU88. A chase between squirrels, apparently not play. Gray squirrel pursuing a larger fox squirrel, which jumped out of trees twice from 15-20 feet up, landing hard, to escape (in the second jump it leaped out, seemed to sail a bit, and its fall was partly broken by a small shrub). The fox squirrel uttered a harsh call, short and sharp, like part of a mobbing call, on 2 occasions. There was an un-play-like seriousness about the pursuer.

27MY89. Young gray squirrels very curious, approach when you hold still (yesterday in the park at the Newberry Library in Chicago, today in Maple Grove Forest Preserve). They have a buzzing call, precursor of the adult’s bark.

22JE89. 2 gray squirrels eating red (not quite ripe) mulberries at Willowbrook. The berries began to ripen the previous weeks, so many other ripe ones were available.

29AU89. Many twig ends, some more than 1 foot long, cut from a sugar maple in Back Yards exhibit by Sciurus sp. The twigs were laden with developing new seeds, but only a few of these were eaten. Happened in last 24 hours (lawn mowed yesterday). No nest visible in nearby trees, and this tree 25 feet from edge of lawn, similar distance from nearest other tree.

3SE89. Gray squirrel youngster (from spring litter) passing through yard, east to west (not a neighborhood where squirrels lived).

20MR90. Gray squirrel chased fox squirrel away from Willowbrook crow cage area, then came back (note: squirrels often enter Willowbrook cages to take food from dishes. A squirrel nest has been found in the bullwinkle in that cage).

22AP90. Winfield Mounds Forest Preserve. 2 gray squirrels eating enlarged cottonwood buds high in the tree. They ascended together, the larger almost seeming to pursue, certainly to follow, the smaller. The smaller climbed in 2-foot spurts, the larger following, beginning its move as soon as the smaller’s ended. Larger flicked tail in rippling pattern reminiscent of fish or salamander courtship. The smaller may have done so once or twice, but less forcefully. Slow and deliberate, not a rapid play chase. When they were high up, it appeared the smaller would leap to another branch to escape. Larger broke off chase, and they fed. Didn’t take every bud, examined many without taking. Later, larger followed smaller to ground, then up another tree, same way. Larger sometimes sniffed where smaller had been. Larger got ahead of smaller and turned to face it, flicking tail. Smaller turned away. Etc.

1JL90. Gray squirrel in mulberry tree, feeding on ripe berries, West DuPage Woods.

26JA92. Hidden Lake Forest Preserve. Lots of nut digging by squirrels, last 24 hours. Fresh snow, overnight low 20F.

21SE97. Gray squirrel eating gilled mushroom cap, Petoskey State Park, MI. Both gray and black individuals common. One chased by red squirrel briefly.

4MR99. At mid-day a gray squirrel emerged from a hole in a large, dead willow across from the Safari Trail/Glen Crest Creek junction at Willowbrook to drive away an approaching fox squirrel. The gray immediately returned to the hole.

27OC99. Fox and gray squirrels active. Former have been eating nuts in recent days, one this morning in a box elder eating seeds, another appearing to work on a broken down old nest. Gray squirrels on ground this morning, some in woods, at least one in base of savanna finger at Willowbrook.

28OC99. Gray squirrel with nut, fox squirrel eating box elder seeds.

17NO99. A gray squirrel (young) and a fox squirrel both eating box elder seeds at Willowbrook.

2DE99. Several gray squirrels and 1 fox squirrel foraging on ground.

9FE00. Gray squirrel using an exposed (though low) leaf nest at Willowbrook.

14FE00. Many gray and fox squirrels this winter in nests only 12‑14 inches outer diameter at Willowbrook.

4MR00. A gray and 2 fox squirrels feeding on the expanding buds of an American elm near the Joy Path of Morton Arboretum. As I left the path to approach the tree to ID it, the gray squirrel immediately left and ran to other trees. As I walked up to the trunk, the lower of the fox squirrels finally left, but the higher one remained.

15MR00. Willowbrook. A gray squirrel carrying a walnut, in vicinity of trail willow den (have seen a squirrel eating a walnut near there recently).

11JE00. In a morning’s hiking south of Langlade, WI, 1 gray squirrel seen.

21OC05. Willowbrook. Gray squirrel, tail curled over its head, giving its growling-snarling-whining call with an education raptor volunteer holding a red-tailed hawk on a glove nearby. Squirrel holding still, oriented so that its right side is toward the hawk.

25JA06. Fullersburg. 2 pairs gray squirrels chasing one another, probably courtship.

10JL06. Gray squirrel eating ripening hackberries, Fullersburg’s Willow Island.

5OC10. Mayslake. A fox squirrel chased a gray squirrel on the ground in the south savanna.

Tennessee Warbler Dossier

by Carl Strang

The Tennessee warbler is one of our more abundant migrants, conspicuous more by sound than by sight in spring as it is well camouflaged and moves slowly, often high in the trees. It often works closer to the ground and more frenetically in the fall.

Warbler, Tennessee

Tennessee Warbler

Tennessee Warbler

Seen as migrant in many locations in the eastern U.S. Judging by songs, one of the most abundant warbler migrants. Not an easy bird to see; moves slowly and infrequently, and colors cryptic among tree leaves. Song loud and distinctive, and for a week or so every spring the trees of woods and residential areas ring with their songs. “Sebit, sebit, sebit, sebit, seteeteeteeteetee…” Initial part just like Nashville warbler’s, but last part very loud, rapid and energetic with no slurring of notes.

10MY87. First of season noted.

13MY87. At Willowbrook, one bird thoroughly working one small area, with much turning of its head, short reaches to probe nearby leaves, short hops between branches, relatively slow-moving for a warbler. Also does a lot of slow smooth stepping along a twig. Foraging in box elder, black willow.

13SE87. West DuPage Woods Forest Preserve. Several Tennessee warblers together in a mixed flock with a magnolia warbler, a red-eyed vireo, a female rose-breasted grosbeak, and several catbirds and robins. The warblers remained within 10 feet of the ground, active and acrobatic, probing, changing perches frequently (2-10 seconds), very chickadee-like and unlike last spring. 11MY88. First Tennessee warbler song of the year. Gone by May 20.

18MY90. Lots of Tennessee warblers at Willowbrook. Cold spring. The only warblers heard on the 24th.

4MY99. First migrant noted at Willowbrook. Last noted there on 25MY.

12MY99. Slow and deliberate, on 1 perch a long time as they look around.

31AU99. First migrant noted at Willowbrook. First-year Tennessee warbler very yellow, with yellow eye line, but white under tail. In contrast to spring birds, very frequent perch changes, actively pivoting and reaching. Last migrant at Willowbrook noted 17SE.

7MY00. Several Tennessees in a mixed flock at West DuPage Woods, high in canopy. One was moving steadily when I first saw it, foraging and singing, then was still for over a minute on a perch, apparently doing no foraging, but alternating singing with bouts of preening.

24SE00. Tennessees have been abundant, lately. Today, a couple in hedgelike borders of the Prairie Path at West Chicago Prairie just east of Industrial Drive.

8OC00. A couple Tennessee’s at West Chicago Prairie.

12OC02. A few at Fermilab in old field areas.

Whitetail Deer Dossier

by Carl Strang

It’s time to start sharing some of my larger files of notes from personal observations of our vertebrate wildlife. This week’s feature is our local hoofed critter. The preliminary notes, written in the mid-80’s, are more extensive than usual. The dated notes that follow provide many illustrations of the value of tracking in behavior studies.

Deer, Whitetail

Buck in a bed

Buck in a bed

Deer can be seen in a variety of habitats. Their home range always includes some woodland, brush and meadow or marsh areas. They travel on well used trails, occasionally wandering off them to feed. Commonly they enter meadows to feed at dusk. In winter, they feed on browse. In northern Illinois they hit Rosaceae (blackberries, roses, etc.) early in winter, then eat a variety of woody plants, then by mid-February are eating poison ivy almost exclusively. Cottontails follow the same sequence of foods, but deer-browsed twigs usually are bitten off higher and have a torn edge from the deer’s lack of upper incisors. Through January (though mainly in October and November), bucks attack certain shrubs and saplings along trails, breaking twigs and usually also eating a couple (antler rubs). At Herrick Lake Forest Preserve I noticed that pioneer bur oaks in fields were especially exposed to this abuse.

Shrubs missing bark after being rubbed by a buck’s antlers

Shrubs missing bark after being rubbed by a buck’s antlers

Does in spring have fawns which at first remain quietly curled up on ground, freezing when approached. If they do wander, they will call for mother with a sheep-like bleating sound. As their size and strength improve they begin to travel with mother, although on occasion they will drop into a frozen curled position when a threat is detected. Spots can remain into late summer.

Deer flushed close have tail-lifting display, spreading the white hairs underneath (on small fawns the display is disproportionately large). At a distance, when at least partly in cover, they give a high-pitched, whistling snort, often accompanied by a stomping of the feet.

Bony antlers grow slowly through summer, covered with velvety skin. In late fall they dry, the skin comes off. By spring the antlers have been shed.

Tracks usually are 2-toed hoof marks. Leaping deer or those in deep soft substrates also will make 2 smaller dewclaw prints. In deep snow, the tips of the nails often make drag marks. I have seen deer leap over 6-foot fences, and tracks have shown horizontal jumps of more than 12 feet.

In May, deer on Reineman Sanctuary (PA) fed on fiddleheads of hay-scented ferns, but didn’t touch them after they unfolded. Among summer foods were leaves and twigs of greenbrier.

Deer tracks typically show two toes. Here, a deer was walking but accelerating.

Deer tracks typically show two toes. Here, a deer was walking but accelerating.

27DE86, Memorial Forest near Culver: deer recently browsed sassafras.

10JA87. Herrick Lake Forest Preserve. After last night’s heavy snow, tracks (made this morning, early) only abundant at a large patch of brush in SE corner of preserve, along N edge. All made early this morning except one flushed by a person who was tracking it.

11JA87. Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Deer were bedding in snow in same general area, had been there a while before my approach scared them up around 11:30 a.m. They had not cleared a place but just lay down, and the snow barely melted. Beds of the 4 deer were 5-20m apart. Other areas, similar in size and with sides pressed smooth by deer’s body (1 with hairs), had ground bare on the bottom (snow 6 inches deep). In the one with the hairs there were no clear signs of digging, but the others clearly had been dug out.

17JA87, Herrick Lake Forest Preserve. Half an inch of new snow fell the night before. I started tracking in the afternoon, but the tracks were difficult to follow as individual deer and small groups flowed together and apart, anastomosing their trails so that I couldn’t follow an individual for long.

18JA87. McKee Marsh. Better luck. 4 inches of new snow fell overnight, and I was able to follow a single deer for 2 hours, covering about a mile. I was able to stick with him (I believe it was a large buck). I began in the woods near the parking lot, where he followed a winding path, sniffing several shrubs and browsing on a Viburnum (3-lobed leaves and paired red basswood-like buds) and on buckthorn. In one spot where he urinated copiously there were symmetrical shallow hoof marks on either side of his trail, which had the effect of scooping snow into the spot where the urine fell. Then he emerged into open fields E of the woods, wound through a marshy spot, crossed Mack Road, then angled ESE. At one point he suddenly was spooked by a fresh snowmobile track, jumped to the left, then walked across the track and rejoined the trail. Occasionally I had problems when he joined another deer, but by finding every footprint I was able to stay with him until he re-entered the woods and joined 3 other deer. When they split I could not be absolutely sure which he was, but I have about 50% confidence that I followed the right one. He ate more Rhamnus, paused to browse heavily on a young bur oak, wandered up a hill, then joined another galloping deer (and 2-3 others), they all crossed Mack Road onto private property and I could not follow.

Where a buck urinated on his feet, blending tarsal gland secretions with urinary scents

Where a buck urinated on his feet, blending tarsal gland secretions with urinary scents

1FE87. Freshly browsed poison ivy, McKee Marsh. Also white ash within the past 2 weeks. Another deer browsed a woodland rosaceous small tree (probably crabapple), 2 inches dbh. Also a basswood. Twice, it defecated shortly after passing under low branches and browsing a few bites. I tracked the deer until I caught up with it in the cattail marsh north of the woods E of the marsh. It had turned to stand in a well hidden spot to watch me. When I got too close it burst from cover, bounded on through the cattails and through the field on the other side. Tracks in field took more of a bound pattern (not so spread front to back) before and after taller weeds, bounding high to clear them.

Later that same day, following another group of deer, I found where one had bedded briefly, at least, in the wet snow.

21FE87. At Greene Valley Forest Preserve. 5 bucks, still with antlers, traveling together as a group. They were moving fast when first seen, traveling through an open field between hedgerows at around noon. They stopped for a while after gaining a second hedgerow, then slowly moved in my direction (I was wearing a navy blue sweatshirt and dark brown pants, and kneeling). They always had one watching me, often all did, but didn’t run away until much later when I stood and walked. Once, a couple sparred with antlers. Mostly 4-6-pointers.

28FE87. At least 3 deer flushed from area thick with saplings and brush under scattered trees, only 150m from busy highway.

23MR87. Waterfall Glen. Deer dead beside creek near intersection of Cass Ave. and 91st Street. Lying in deer-beaver trail, hind feet in water (fracture of left hind tibia partly healed), head end up on bank. Dead at least a week, ribs largely gnawed away, head gone, muscle and internal organs mostly gone except hindquarters. Other tracks of beavers and dog or coyote (probably latter) nearby.

MY87. New Jersey Pine Barrens. Deer browsing blueberries, a little on oaks.

4AU87. Lebanon State Forest, NJ. 4-5 deer flushed from blueberry undergrowth, bounded until out of sight. Then one snorted a couple of times. I could hear them walking in even steps, without the hitching, explosive quality of a towhee. A little sharper and louder than the sound made by the gray fox seen shortly before. That night, as I walked barefoot in the dark, I came within 10 feet of a bedded deer. The deer detected me, and made a terrific racket getting to its feet. By the time it snorted so I knew what it was, I had taken 2 steps back.

Bumps on the head identify this newly spot-free fawn as a male.

Bumps on the head identify this newly spot-free fawn as a male.

3JA88. McDowell Forest Preserve. Following deer tracks, at least 4 days old. Browsed black maple, as well as several scotch pine branch tips (a broken-off branch, about 0.25 inches in diameter where browsed off; twisting and tearing of adjacent needles. Soon thereafter, browsed from a rose bush (prior to all this eating had followed a slightly sinuous path through maple woods, walking steadily). Tracks probably made New Year’s Eve (day before cold front). Feet compacted very wet snow, so probably late afternoon. Stopped to rub antlers on 0.75-inch dbh maple sapling, on its trunk from 1 foot to 2 feet up from ground, bark removed from one side. Soon thereafter it fell in with 2 other deer. Tracks same age, difficult to distinguish, but I believe the one I’m following has a longer stride. They paused to browse buckthorn, maple, rose (mainly the other 2?). Eventually the 3 bedded down beside a multi-stemmed, branchy silver maple in the midst of a field, about 100m from I-88 (in clear view; dark by then). 2 bedded together, third 10 feet from them. They stayed a little while, but still slushy when they left. They headed for the West Branch of the DuPage River, meandered, browsed, another antler rub. Lots of beds in that area. Tracks turn back along stream toward center of preserve. Lots of deer tracks enter and are present in that area by the stream, but none leave. The deer must cross the stream. I backtracked a bit. Buck had been with the others just before I picked up trail, probably was within sight of them throughout.

9JA88. Most of the needles on that pine branch now are browsed away. Deer commonly cross the river just opposite that grove, though routinely bedding among the yews and other ornamental shrubs between there and the stream. Once across, there is a tall fence paralleling the river and about 30 yards on average from it. The deer remain between river bank and fence. A heavily traveled corridor, a bedding area not far from that crossing site. Opposite the zone where I presume they also crossed the river last week, the fence is low enough for them to jump easily, and they either do that, or go under it at a nearby creek (more common), or continue along fence (also common). But soon comes I-88, and it appears to be a complete barrier on that side. A few cross the river there, a few go around the end of the fence. A very few go under I-88, on west side of river. None have crossed in that presumed crossing zone, but the ice probably has been thick enough to support them for only a couple days, and an open lead about 3 feet across runs along the entire east side along that stretch. That might explain why the tracks were running the opposite direction from last week on the stretches-in-common.

When you hold still and allow a deer to approach, it will stare at you and occasionally stomp a foot as though to startle you into moving and revealing yourself.

When you hold still and allow a deer to approach, it will stare at you and occasionally stomp a foot as though to startle you into moving and revealing yourself.

16JA88. McDowell deer crossed the preserve entrance road just west of the bridge, followed trail steadily between road and river (top of bank). Night before last, not last night. Lost in human and dog tracks, just before widening of area and feeding signs spread out from trail. Well below dam (at least 200m). There signs of much deer activity. Several beds in hill and old-wall area. More feeding and trails (well-used) in even wider area S of there. I flushed a large doe and 2 non-spotted fawns from beds in a pole-tree area a little farther down. They soon circled back around me (to my N). Visible parts: sharp dark horizontal line of back, horizontal white streak of belly cutting through trunks, from side; narrow white outline of tail from back, black nose and eye; brownish cast of fur against gray of trunks (not as distinct).

23JA88. McDowell. Deer recently browsed bur oak sapling. Tracked group of 4-8 deer into NW corner of preserve, brushy area seldom frequented by people, W of beaver pond (dam long, a winding 20-30 yards).

27JA88. Dan Ludwig flew over McDowell and passed on observations of deer: 8 in NW corner, 3 in NE near toll road (both groups west of river, and 6 SE, possibly off preserve.

30JA88. Hartz Lake. Deer trails through woods generally straight, and located to accommodate traveling from one goal to another (goals on either side of woods). Much interdigitation and side-paths abundant around the moist, tall meadows.

29AP88. Pratts Wayne Forest Preserve. Micro pressure releases in one or other toe show where push or pivot was greatest.

1MY88. Warrenville Grove Forest Preserve. Deer ate off tops of several Smilacina racemosa, plus a couple of Alliaria (and other plants, individually removed lower leaves). Not real recently, say 3-8 days ago.

7MY88. Deer tracks, Indian trails of Culver, also ate off tops of a few Smilacina stellata. At Hartz Lake, when one broke a twig loudly, jay responded with “thief” call.

15JL88. Deer heavily eating the Tradescantia at Fulton County museum property, not too long ago. Also eating Seymeria macrophylla.

Antlers nearly grown, but still covered in velvety skin as the bone matures

Antlers nearly grown, but still covered in velvety skin as the bone matures

1AP89. Patch of deer hair on ground in clearing at Hartz Lake. (I also saw some at Winfield Mounds last weekend). Shedding already.

2AP89. Hartz Lake. Deer in groups around clearing (in woods with very little understory) around 9 a.m. A deer snorted. I could just see it through the trees. The nose moved, perhaps a couple inches, but that was the largest motion I could see when it snorted.

13MY89. Hartz Lake, camping. In the dusk, 8 deer came to the prairie area (I was sitting at the opposite edge, by fire). Though basically a doe group, one yearling (small) buck was with them. He was chased a couple times, and a deer struck his back with a forefoot (not a mounting, but a blow). Smaller does still chase after mothers (presumed relationship) to be close to them, when alarmed. I kept still. They saw me, frequently moved heads side to side for parallax.

4JE89. Elsen’s Hill: deer trot pattern showing groups of two prints, 1 foot between prints in a group and 3 feet between groups. Two alternating group types, with front foot of each side ahead of hind foot of other side in that group.

21AU89. Deer tracks, Willowbrook Back 40. Emerged from run, NE corner. Walked down to pond, but stayed above edge (recently arrived, and had drunk from brook?). Nervous. Much starting and stopping, and stomping. Reached a small gulley, then broke into lope, as though the need for the longer step set off a release of nervous energy. 24-inch steps before the lope (toe-tip to toe-tip, measured diagonally). Tendency to splay left front foot and show its dew claws in the lope. While loping, set of 4 tracks 35 inches front to back, groups about 70 inches apart. The tracks were made last night (it had rained the night before last, the tracks made after the rain and after the soil surface had dried). About ten days later: In a hard lope up the hill, the deer showed dewclaws and spread toes on all but the right front. The deer stayed only a couple of weeks. We heard of someone who saw 2 bucks.

2SE89. Tracking deer across screenings trail, McKee Marsh. Stride tended to be slightly longer (23 inches toe tip to toe tip) in tall grass than on path (19-21 inches), except where adjusting stride to clear obstacles. At one point, a hind foot seemed to indicate a turn, falling and pointing to left of the front print, but in fact kept going in the same direction. Response to a disturbance as that foot came down? Implies independence of the 4 feet. Also happened the previous step with that foot.

15SE89. Hartz Lake, edge of open dune. Deer usually pause at edge of clear area before entering it. Shorter strides, and standing.

20SE89. McKee Marsh. A deer, steps 20-20.5 inches on packed screenings trail, became 25-27 inches in tall grass.

Sometimes deer tracks through tall grass are quite clear.

Sometimes deer tracks through tall grass are quite clear.

23SE89. Forest Park Nature Center, Peoria, IL. Deer have been browsing Aster shortii, a species of ridgetops, heavily in recent weeks. This has been their main food within the forest in this period, except for acorns.

24NO89. Hartz Lake. 2 deer beds, SE corner (behind cemetery) in woods. Windy day, saw 2 deer crossing road mid-afternoon, and as I studied tracks on the open dune a doe with a broken or injured right front leg limped past.

13DE89. Hartz Lake. Deer heavily using main north-south trail past couple of days (since snowfall).

16DE89. McDowell Forest Preserve. Patterns of deer activity in west part of preserve much the same as last winter. The only difference is a possible shift from the old home site to the center of the adjacent field in the north part of the preserve. If anything, there is even more concentration of activity to the north end of the preserve than before.

4FE90. Recently shed antler near mouth of Sawmill Creek, Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve.

Late MY90. Hartz Lake. A deer appeared to stomp and snort as a gambit to make me move. Odor and sound spooked them more than small movements.

9JE90. Winfield Mounds. Heavy feeding by deer on goldenrods, past couple of weeks.

Wet forest litter from a recent rain foiled this fawn’s camouflage. Fawn spots form individualized patterns that permit recognition of individuals as long as they last.

Wet forest litter from a recent rain foiled this fawn’s camouflage. Fawn spots form individualized patterns that permit recognition of individuals as long as they last.

30JE90. West DuPage Woods. Fawn moving about and exploring on its own. Still small, but strong. I held still, it slowly moved toward me, sniffing and occasionally stamping like an adult. When mother appeared, and bolted, it ran, too. Tail flag.

13JL90. McKee Marsh. As I was running through the forest, I saw a fawn, approaching half adult size, on the trail ahead. I slowed and quieted my steps. It bolted when I was 10 yards away, and its mother and its sibling, who were close by, bolted as well. Unless the mother gave an audible signal I missed (unlikely, though I was so focused on the fawn that I didn’t see her), she was waiting for the fawn to make the move. If so, she was teaching it to run away from people and to react on its own without depending on her signal.

2JE91. First fawn tracks of the year, Pratts Wayne Woods Forest Preserve.

Doe and fawn. By November, the fawns’ spots are gone.

Doe and fawn. By November, the fawns’ spots are gone.

21DE91. Hidden Lake Forest Preserve. Followed last night’s tracks of a very large deer, sex uncertain but more likely male. Traveled relatively straight lines through open field, but began highly convoluted turnings in a brushier area as it began feeding. Principal (only?) food Geum laciniatum basal leaves, nosed rather than pawed snow to reach them. Ate many. Went out of its way to examine a coyote or dog bed. Bedded, itself, several hours. Note: outward tracks from bed looked older than inward ones. Snow apparently less compactable, or more easily self-kicked back into track, with less smoothly compacted bottom of track and less crisp edges. Wandered and fed more after leaving bed. Defecated several times.

17FE92. Elsen’s Hill (W. DuPage Woods Forest Preserve.). I kept mainly to deer trails, saw 2 deer in a brushy area and, later, in a forest, saw 2 getting up from their beds. I stood still for a while, there, listening, and soon caught movement. Three deer slowly moved into view. Almost certainly the ones I had spooked, a doe and 2 fawns. I kept very still and they approached, the doe doing the foot-stomping test. Sometimes it appears to be largely a nervous expression, others it is very deliberate and calculated, the deer staring hard and keeping its head still while doing so. The fawns kept back. Several times she gradually worked to within 20 yards, then abruptly turned and ran, tail flagging, the fawns doing so as well. On one of these occasions she snorted several times. But I kept still, she didn’t go far, and repeated the process. The closest she ever came was 40 feet. I was wearing the green and black wool coat, standing clear of trees, with a medium density of 2-4-inch dbh trees and a few large ones in that area. The deer finally left for good at the sound of human voices on a trail not too far away, but the deer walked away rather than ran. During all of this there were occasional crows and squirrels seeing me and vocalizing. The deer attended the squirrels, but not the crows, starting at the squirrel’s bark and becoming more wary of me.

3OC93. Rock Island Park, Wisconsin. 2 bucks facing one another, heads lowered near to ground, maneuvering antlers. Like arm-wrestlers seeking best grip.

Early in the 90’s I had a season of deer hunting. During a several-day cold rainy period I sat for hours without seeing any deer. On drier days they were active.

Deer visited several times during the 90’s at Willowbrook. Usually they stayed 2 weeks at most, but during the summer of 1997 a couple of them stayed from May into August.

JE99, Kansas, Konza Prairie. A deer snorted and ran as I approached, holding head and nose above horizontal a bit while snorting.

15MY06. Fullersburg. A deer eating Virginia creeper leaves from a ground vine.

During the 3 years my office was at Fullersburg Woods Forest Preserve, I mapped the winter movements of the preserve’s deer. In the winter of 2006-7 there were 4 groups which followed consistent daily routes as shown.

During the 3 years my office was at Fullersburg Woods Forest Preserve, I mapped the winter movements of the preserve’s deer. In the winter of 2006-7 there were 4 groups which followed consistent daily routes as shown.

28AP08. New antlers beginning to grow on bucks (similar stage photographed 3 May last year).

New antlers just starting to grow

New antlers just starting to grow

15SE10. Meacham Grove. While doing herbivory data collecting I saw 3 antlerless deer. One, a fawn that had become spotless, made a persistent effort to nurse from its mother for a minute or so until she pushed it away. The third I believe was another adult doe.

Blue Jay Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

This week’s species dossier contains my observations of the blue jay, a bird I regard as the Forest Crier, who lets everybody know what is going on.

Blue jay

Blue jay

Jay, Blue

Lives in forests and old, tree-filled residential areas. Nested in the yard at Culver (15′ up in silver maple), riparian strip at Willowbrook Forest Preserve, IL (8′ up in small tree) and Maple Grove F.P. (10′ up in hawthorn at forest edge, incubating 31MY86). Bird reluctant to move when on nest. Eats mainly insects in summer, a lot of nuts and seeds in fall and winter. Forages from ground to top of canopy. Very vocal. “Eeth! Eeth!” sharp alarm call; rising, accelerating “a-a-a-ee-ee-ee-ee” (long a’s and ee’s) begging/feeding call of young (much like crows’); “ool-ool” and “teekle-teekle” calls accompanied by peculiar bobbing of body. Captive reared birds at the Willowbrook Wildlife Center often used this latter movement in concert with vocal mimicries (whistles, telephone ringing). Low, highly musical, conversation-like vocalizations among Willowbrook’s caged birds. Wild birds mimic calls of various hawks. They travel in loosely organized flocks much of the year. Mob crows in spring. Courtship feeding observed in a treetop at Maple Grove F.P. on 10MY86. Tend to take over feeders, other birds stay away until they leave.

15JE86. As a broad-winged hawk flew past, pursued by a couple of starlings at Maple Grove, a blue jay uttered a single “eeth!” call.

Late summer 86. As a flock of ground-feeding grackles flushed at the approach of people, jays and downy woodpeckers at Meacham Grove emitted contact calls, apparently as a final check of location and status before possible flight.

11MY88. Responded to deer breaking twig loudly with “thief” call, Hartz Lake.

12MY88. Jay on nest in 20′ box elder, nest 15′ up, riparian strip of Willowbrook Back 40.

5JE88. In the middle of Geneva I stood under a tree in which a pair of cardinals suddenly began to alarm-call rapidly. They were close to me, but not paying attention to me. The calls were directed at a blue jay which the cardinals chased from the isolated street-side tree to a clump of trees and brush, and continued the alarm calling and chasing until the jay left. The jay resisted some, was not driven off easily.

29MY88. Hartz Lake, in woods. A chipmunk saw me move my arm laterally, gave 3 chips increasing in speed, and ran. Immediately 2 jays feeding on the ground flew up. They were 40-50 feet away.

13JL88. Blue jay young still following, begging from parent, though they look full grown.

18OC88. Cactus Camp, IN. A blue jay yelling at me with repeated, energetic “jay jay” (“thief thief,” “eeth eeth”) calls.

24DE88. Cactus Camp. Jays doing a lot of “jay” mobbing; information about animals moving away from me?

4JE89. Elsen’s Hill Forest Preserve, IL. Teekettle call used as a warning to an intruding jay, given as the intruder landed. After several repetitions the intruder hadn’t left, and so the calling bird flew into the same oak and began to displace it (flights of 10-20 feet). It “jay”ed once, then resumed “teakettles,” continuing displacements and increasing their frequency, until the intruder left.

11JE89. Cactus Camp. Pair of jays mobbed me with loud “jay” calls.

17JE89. A broad-wing called repeatedly, in north end of Maple Grove. Jays, flickers and grackles highly agitated, flickers the most continuously vocal with “keels” every 2 seconds (2 birds). Grackles gacking frequently, too. A great crested flycatcher near, also vocal, but not clearly in response to the hawk; same with chickadees. Robins definitely disturbed, with nervous dee-dee-dee’s every 20 seconds or so. Jays in bursts, with several birds mobbing.

18AU89. Willowbrook marsh. Kestrel and jays. Latter making a strange, harsh, parrot-like call. Chasing, mobbing. Kestrel seemed to stoop at the jays a couple times, but the jays kept mobbing until the kestrel left.

31AU89. Jays vigorously “jay”-ing at a great horned owl well hidden among leaves in a willow top. Chipmunks chucking nearby, below.

3SE89. Jays maintain contacts with a-a calls (long a’s) and a variety of squeaky notes.

14OC89. Cactus Camp. Jays “jay”ing at a hawk, landing on branches nearby. Hawk appeared to be a red-tail, but was down inside forest. Jays stayed with it as it flew.

Late MY90. Cactus Camp. Jays foraged in accumulated oak leaves in the open among short brush by perching on tree or sapling branches, searching the ground, and making short flights out.

 

Common Goldeneye Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

This week’s feature species is chosen in celebration of my seeing its close cousin, the Barrow’s goldeneye, as accounted recently.

Goldeneye, Common

Common goldeneyes, black and white males with brown headed females

Common goldeneyes, black and white males with brown headed females

Fairly common migrant and winter resident at Lake Maxinkuckee in northern Indiana, staying as long as open water remained, and appearing as open water appeared in spring. Although they fed in the lake (these ducks dive for food), they also flew to the Tippecanoe River to forage. When only holes remained in the center of the lake ice, the river was their sole food source. Crayfish the principal food taken from the river (gut contents of hunted birds). Usually seen in small groups of 2-7, although larger flocks of >20 occasionally were spotted. Called “whistlers” by hunters because of the distinctive whistling of their wings in flight. Occasional small flock seen at Kokechik Bay, western Alaska, in spring. Courtship display of males includes extreme head throwback, so that bill points up and the back of the extended neck is against the duck’s back.

Observed on the Rock River in early spring 1986.

23JA88. Pair in west branch of the DuPage River at McDowell Forest Preserve.

21FE99. 14, mostly females, and one incompletely molted-in male, actively diving in the Fox River just south of downtown St. Charles, IL.

21MR05. On Lake Maxinkuckee, two male hooded mergansers in separate small flocks of goldeneyes. In one of the flocks, courtship displays began, and the merganser displayed as well, fanning his crest open to the fullest extent. No female mergansers in those groups.

22FE09. A number of goldeneyes of both genders on the Fox River at the park downstream from Batavia’s Island Park. The current is very swift, and carrying a lot of small ice pieces. The ducks are diving repeatedly, and at some point when the current has carried them downstream a distance they fly back up and begin again. Their diving within the fairly dense ice pieces is an impressive sight.

12FE13. A number of goldeneyes at Widewaters on the Des Plaines River at Channahon, and at the rookery at Channahon and at Lake Renwick, evidently wintering there.

Species Dossier: Pied-billed Grebe

by Carl Strang

Grebes are cool. I love the way pied-billed grebes can sink without diving, and come to the surface with just the top of their head showing as they check out whether the coast is clear. They also have proven to have odd and unexpected evolutionary relationships. A recent study confirmed that the grebes are closest to the flamingos. Once you get your head around that one, add this result: among our local birds, the next closest relatives to the grebe-flamingos are the doves. Here are my observations on this species:

Grebe, Pied-billed

Pied-billed Grebe

Pied-billed Grebe

Common migrant on Maxinkuckee and ponds around Culver, generally appearing as individuals either isolated or on the fringes of duck or coot rafts. Breeder at McKee Marsh in DuPage County, IL. By mid-July the young were foraging with the parents, catching newly metamorphosed bullfrogs. Sings from water, a strange pumping song. “Ah-ah-ah…ah-ah-ah’dool-ah’dool-ah’dool…” The “ah” syllable increases in pitch untill it is very high when compared with the lower-pitched “dool” syllable.

4AP99. First of year seen, Culver.

10SE99. A single youngster spent a day on the Willowbrook marsh. This is the first one to stop at Willowbrook, perhaps because this was the first year with significant emergent vegetation along the edge. Still had some pied markings on the face.

30OC99. 3 on a lake at Fermilab.

8NO99. Lots of pied-billed grebes scattered among coot and duck rafts at Lake Maxinkuckee. Horned grebes outside, separate, and a few of the pied-billeds as well.

2AP00. One individual at Lincoln Marsh, Wheaton.

1JL00. An adult with at least 2 swimming small young, Brewster Creek marsh at Pratts Wayne F.P.

24SE00. Several migrants at McKee Marsh.

28OC09. Mayslake. A pied-billed grebe on May’s Lake swallowed a small fish.

23NO09. Mayslake. A dozen mallards diving for food in May’s Lake, coming up with aquatic vegetation after being completely under water 3-5 seconds. The grebe that has been staying close to them for a week still is present, and also diving.

5AP10. Mayslake. In the stream corridor marsh, 6 hooded mergansers and a pied-billed grebe diving for tiny prey, insect larvae and/or chorus frog tadpoles. Two of the mergansers were first-year males, with nearly white, indistinctly defined boundaries, in crests.

15OC. Mayslake. Two pied-billed grebes in the NW corner of May’s Lake. One flew when I came up on them, the other dove.

7SE12. Maylake. In the SE corner of May’s Lake, 25 mallards accompanied by a single immature pied-billed grebe that at times appeared to be dabbling.

 

Eastern Wood-Pewee Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

This week’s species dossier consists of my observations of a neotropical migrant flycatcher, the eastern wood-pewee. This bird is our common small woodland nesting flycatcher, working mainly in the lower canopy and shrub layer, leaving the upper canopy to its larger relative, the great crested flycatcher.

Wood-Pewee, Eastern

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Eastern Wood-Pewee

Forages typical flycatcher fashion from all levels, but mainly mid-canopy. Calls “peewee,” slurring the second syllable downward in pitch, then up. Also “peeurr,” slurring all smoothly down.

18JE80. A nest found in Pennsylvania was a neatly woven cup, very similar to the red-eyed vireo’s, in a low understory plant.

1JL90. West DuPage Woods Forest Preserve. Pair of pewees mobbing a blue jay. Swooped at it as it foraged in low to mid canopy of high trees on hilltop above river. Another jay flew in, both jays gave “kee-tuck-tuck” (ool-ool) call and bowed (a greeting? Seemed that way). One of the jays moved on, both pewees stayed with the other as long as it was on the hilltop, then they stayed behind. Almost every time the jay changed perches, the pewees flew to stay with it (perching nearby, usually behind it), often swooping past just as the jay landed, coming within 2 inches of it and snapping their bills at the closest point of the swoop. Sometimes the jay responded by opening beak and snapping back at them.

28AP99. First of season noted at Willowbrook. Last of spring migration 28MY.

3SE99. First migrant noted at Willowbrook. Last of year there on 22SE.

18JE00. Arboretum near Joy Path. A pewee foraged for a time within the canopies of trees not far from the leafy twig-ends, frequently moving from perch to perch and from tree to tree. Then for a span of at least 10 minutes it stayed on one perch, a dead oak branch that extended into a fairly large subcanopy space. It continued calling frequently throughout, with occasional sallies. I did not observe prey handling, but on one sally I could see the small, slow-flying insect it caught, and it had swallowed the prey before returning to the perch. The calls were nearly all “peewee’s,” but an occasional “peeurr” was thrown into the mix (less than 5%). No move to go to a nest in 20 minutes of foraging between 8 and 9a.m. A pewee was foraging in the same spot 16 days ago.

28JL01. Pewees at White Pines State Park have switched to the “peeurr” call.

23MY02. Suddenly, many pewees have appeared, at Willowbrook and elsewhere. First of year.

House Sparrow Dossier

by Carl Strang

What could be more common than a house sparrow? That question seems less appropriate now than it might have a couple decades ago, given the decline in the species’ numbers in recent years in many parts of its range. Nevertheless, if the length of a species dossier was in proportion to the species’ abundance, this should be one of the longer ones. That it is not is a clue that perhaps I have been neglecting to give this bird the attention it deserves. Even the introductory paragraph that I wrote to kick off the dossier in the 1980’s is perfunctory.

Sparrow, House

Male house sparrow, profile view

Male house sparrow, profile view

Never far from buildings, these birds usually nest in cavities of buildings, light posts, or birdhouses, though sometimes they build large ball-shaped nests in tree or shrub branches. They use much grass and assorted debris and litter in nest construction. The song is an uncomplicated, cheerful chirping sound. Loud “cheep” calls used in agonistic and warning situations. The male has a stiff bowing hopping behavior, with tail and wings elevated, in courtship. They eat seeds and insects. They engaged in vigorous pursuit of emerging termite alates at the East Street house in Carlisle, PA.

Early AU86. Corpus Christi, TX. Young begging by fluttering wings and stretching head toward adult male. He flew to another bush and searched for food grosbeak fashion, little change in perch with much peering at nearby branches in all directions.

The face reveals how the black chin accentuates the bill, possibly a useful feature when facing off with antagonists.

The face reveals how the black chin accentuates the bill, possibly a useful feature when facing off with antagonists.

13MY87. Bird foraging in willow tops at Willowbrook. Sits on perch 1-3 seconds, searching nearby vegetation, occasionally reach-probing, changing perches about 8″-2′ apart.

8AP90. Female house sparrow systematically biting off bits of dandelion (leaves) to eat, masticating and swallowing.

17OC92. Vicinity of Cantigny (Winfield, IL) while driving. Kestrel carrying house sparrow low across road. Heavy load for the kestrel. Lost grip, perhaps because of the distraction of my car’s close proximity. Sparrow flew away. Many times I’ve seen kestrels searching vole habitat, carrying or eating mice. This, I believe, is the first bird capture I’ve witnessed.

1JE99. House sparrow picking up insect remains from old coyote feces on trail.

25AU99. House sparrow with several white feathers on tail and wings observed at Willowbrook.

29JA00. House sparrows along with Brewer’s blackbirds, horned larks and juncos feeding on spillage from buffalo feeders at Fermilab.

 

Nashville Warbler Dossier

by Carl Strang

How do we “know” what we “know?” It occurred to me back in the 1980’s that much of what I “knew” about most species of animals and plants was information I had gained from reading or from talking with others. I made the decision to assemble a dossier for each animal species, based entirely on my own experience. This was humbling, as the resulting files were small even for common species. From then on I made a point of adding notes as I focused on accumulating more such experience. In recent years my attention has been focused more on singing insects, and so I have added fewer notes to the vertebrate dossiers, but such as I have I continue to share here from time to time in the winter. Today’s focus species, the Nashville warbler, is one we see in the Chicago area only during migration, so at least I have a ready excuse for its small dossier. The odd prefixes for each entry are my date codes.

Nashville Warbler

Nashville Warbler

Nashville Warbler

Observed as a migrant in Lafayette, IN, and at Willowbrook Forest Preserve, DuPage County. Song close to Tennessee warbler’s. First part of song identical, with loud “se-bit’, se-bit’, se-bit’” then instead of emphatic “tee’s” has fewer, slurred, robin-like notes (usually 3). The Willowbrook birds hung around the taller thick shrubs at the edge of the riparian strip.

1MY87. At Willowbrook, a Nashville warbler hopped along and between twigs, 8-15 feet up in riparian woodland. At times very frenetic impression, jerking head around to look in all directions and not pausing long. At other times paused for several seconds and looked all around. Caught 2 small caterpillars within 3 minutes, both by reaching into expanding leaf tufts in box elders. Killed with pecks before swallowing. Not observed to hover-glean or sally.

4MY87. Abundant. In addition to song, a “bick” call, loud and sharp. Another one observed feeding in same way as the one above: much looking between short frenetic hops, and stretching to reach prey from leaf-clusters. Feeding in box elder.

5MY87. Has a chunky body and shows fluttering-hopping advances like a kinglet.

2MY88. First of year singing. Also 7MY at Fulton County Museum property.

19MY88. Female seen at Willowbrook.

31AU88. One observed in Willowbrook riparian area, feeding among low shrubs. Acrobatic, and an aerial pursuit. Reached a lot, too.

29AP89. Heard singing at Von Oven Scout Camp, Naperville.

8MY89. Last noted of spring.

29AP99. First of season noted at Willowbrook. Last noted 14MY there that spring.

3MY99. At Willowbrook, foraging 20 feet up in a box elder. Deliberate, making 1-2-inch hops with much looking around and reaching but no acrobatics. No long jumps, except when moving from tree to tree. Sang infrequently. Slow motion not conspicuous.

2SE99. First migrant of fall noted at Willowbrook. Last seen there 17SE.

1MY00. First migrant heard at Willowbrook.

24SE00. A couple in the Sparrow Hedge, Fermilab.

13OC00. A single, clearly marked adult among Tennessee warblers feeding in tall goldenrods, etc., at McKee Marsh.

14SE02. A single individual at Elsen’s Hill (there were mixed flocks elsewhere) systematically moving from one tall goldenrod to another along a wooded trail edge, perching in or adjacent to the flower heads and searching them closely.

8MY11. Elsen’s Hill. One foraging among the twig tips of a small rosaceous tree in which leaves were expanding. It cranked and twisted its neck so as to peer into and all around the tips while remaining perched in place.

Western Chorus Frog Dossier

by Carl Strang

An early sign of spring’s arrival is the sound of massed chorus frogs. Here are my limited specific observations of them.

Western chorus frog

Western chorus frog

Frog, Western Chorus Known in my experience mainly from DuPage County, IL, and the Culver, Indiana, area. In early spring they sing in large numbers, in crickety sounding calls, in temporary ponds. I saw one in the back yard of the house we rented in Glendale Heights. Small and striped, crawling in the grass. Closest pond where they sang was at least 200m away.

7MR87. Singing at West Chicago Prairie.

22MR87. Singing at Fish Hatchery, Culver, in first partial pond west of ditches.

12MR88. Brief song from one at McDowell Forest Preserve.

26MR88. Singing just west of Hartz Lake property.

27MR89. First song of year heard at McKee Marsh.

23AP89. Herrick Lake Forest Preserve. I water-stalked a singing frog, close enough to see it, or at least the movement caused by its singing. It was in or just above the water, which vibrated with the song. It was in a place where broken-down cattails created a small (almost completely covering) shelter. They sing in alternation: pairs, high and low. High starts. If a few calls do not involve a nearby frog in a duet, the first stops.

10MR97. Heard one singing while I ran on Prairie Path near Rt. 59.

20MR99. First chorus frogs of spring heard in 2 places.

30OC99. 1-2 (same one found twice?) found on an extensive mudflat at Fermilab.

5MR00. A few singing at Lake Law, Fermilab, in an area of shallow water and dense dead stems of cattails and grasses.

2MY00. A couple still singing.

24SE00. A few individuals singing weakly in the tall, goldenrod-dominated upland vegetation between the large lakes at Fermilab.

14OC00. Occasional song, still, at Fermilab. Much like spring peeper’s pattern of fall singing.

21MR01. First of year, a couple only, heard near Prairie Path east of Warrenville. A cold, lingering winter.

15AP01. Quite a few singing near the McKee Marsh outlet. 12SE01. I heard single brief song beside the prairie path north of Butterfield and west of Fermilab in late afternoon.

12OC02. A few weakly singing individuals at Fermilab, in low spots.

21MR05. One singer at the Hartz Lake property.

13JE06. Tri-County State Park. Chorus frogs and American toads have resumed singing after heavy recent rains have raised water levels, here and at Fermilab for chorus frogs, and here and at Fullersburg for toads.

5AP10. Mayslake. A jump in chorus frog numbers from last year. Last year they were at the stream corridor marsh only, and the maximum male count was 12. This year, up to 22. Furthermore, there were satellite groups in the parking lot marsh (3) and the reed-canary-grass pool east of the dog fence (5).

25OC10. Mayslake. Chorus frogs calling, three individuals in three places: one on top of a wooded hill; one in the middle of the meadow west of the dog area, and one a short distance south of the stream corridor marsh.

27OC10. Mayslake. A western chorus frog called from on or right beside the path N of the stream corridor marsh. No hibernaculum candidate there.

17MR11. Mayslake. First singers of the season, in stream corridor and parking lot marshes.

One reason chorus frogs can be difficult to see is that they often select sheltered places from which to sing. The edge of one’s expanded throat is just visible beneath the log.

One reason chorus frogs can be difficult to see is that they often select sheltered places from which to sing. The edge of one’s expanded throat is just visible beneath the log.

29SE11. Mayslake. At least 3 chorus frogs calling in close proximity in a reed canary grass area. Another in the main meadow W of dog fence.

Spring 2013. Mayslake. Hardly any chorus frog activity this spring, in the wake of last year’s drought, despite the re-filling of the marshes.

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