Ecoblitz Continued

by Carl Strang

The Indiana Forest Alliance, a non-profit conservation organization, has been sponsoring a species survey in portions of two state forests in southern Indiana. As it consists of repeated weekend sessions over a period of years, they are calling it an “ecoblitz” rather than a bioblitz, which is a one-time event limited to a 24- or 48-hour time span. I went down for a weekend last fall, and returned in early August to complete the singing insects portion of the survey.

The area is forested, except for some small areas of tall, dense herbaceous growth in stream bottoms. The singing insect fauna consequently is mainly of forest species.

Confused ground crickets were common on the forest floor.

Confused ground crickets were common on the forest floor.

Say’s trigs by the hundreds sang in the open herbaceous areas.

Say’s trigs by the hundreds sang in the open herbaceous areas.

Widely scattered small groups of rattler round-winged katydids could be heard at night.

Widely scattered small groups of rattler round-winged katydids could be heard at night.

This nymph is recognizable as a male fork-tailed bush katydid by the distinctive appendages at the tip of his abdomen.

This nymph is recognizable as a male fork-tailed bush katydid by the distinctive appendages at the tip of his abdomen.

Some of the other species that sang for us were swamp cicadas, Nebraska coneheads, lesser angle-wing katydids, jumping bush crickets and common true katydids.

I also helped with photography at a night-time moth survey at illuminated sheets.

This small-eyed sphinx was one of the two hummingbird moths we attracted.

This small-eyed sphinx was one of the two hummingbird moths we attracted.

A blinded sphinx also dropped in.

A blinded sphinx also dropped in.

A grape leaffolder

A grape leaffolder

This lesser grapevine looper appears to be sending out pheromone.

This lesser grapevine looper appears to be sending out pheromone.

A Cope’s gray treefrog hopped in, possibly sensing the smorgasbord we had created.

A Cope’s gray treefrog hopped in, possibly sensing the smorgasbord we had created.

 

Photos May-July

by Carl Strang

It’s been a busy field season, and I have fallen way behind in blog posts. I’ll catch up eventually, but today will share a smorgasbord of photos from May through July.

This barred owl appeared during a walk through St. James Farm Forest Preserve. I believe I had come close to its nest tree.

This barred owl appeared during a walk through St. James Farm Forest Preserve. I believe I had come close to its nest tree.

Here is the first slender spreadwing I have found at St. James Farm.

Here is the first slender spreadwing I have found at St. James Farm.

Wild yam graces the understory of the St. James Farm forest.

Wild yam graces the understory of the St. James Farm forest.

Sporangia on the underside of a lady fern leaf at St. James Farm.

Sporangia on the underside of a lady fern leaf at St. James Farm.

The Lulu Lake Nature Preserve in Walworth County, Wisconsin, has become a favorite site. Here a woodland graces a kame.

The Lulu Lake Nature Preserve in Walworth County, Wisconsin, has become a favorite site. Here a woodland graces a kame.

An eight-spotted forester provided a photo op in the nature preserve portion of the Round Lake state property in Starke County, Indiana.

An eight-spotted forester provided a photo op in the nature preserve portion of the Round Lake state property in Starke County, Indiana.

This dragonfly I encountered at Houghton Lake in Marshall County, Indiana, was a bit of a puzzler. I eventually concluded it was a somewhat odd widow skimmer.

This dragonfly I encountered at Houghton Lake in Marshall County, Indiana, was a bit of a puzzler. I eventually concluded it was a somewhat odd widow skimmer, but later changed the ID to slaty skimmer (see comments).

 

The Currency I Work in

by Carl Strang

The main focus of my research these days is traveling through the 22 counties of my survey area, seeking the singing insects that live in the Chicago region. I am building on previous years’ work, filling gaps in range maps. The currency I work in thus is county records. There are around 100 species known to have occurred here, and so the maximum total would be 2200 county records. This is not going to be the eventual result, however, because many of the species live only in limited areas within the region. For instance, last week I closed the book on the green-winged cicada.

This distant photo is the best I have so far of a green-winged cicada.

This distant photo is the best I have so far of a green-winged cicada.

I do not expect to find green-winged cicadas beyond the 10 marked counties.

I do not expect to find green-winged cicadas beyond the 10 marked counties.

They occur only in sand soil woodlands within the region. Though other counties have some areas with sand soils, I have searched them and failed to find the species. Their numbers clearly diminish at the periphery of their range. Four of these county records have been from this year.

Other species are widespread, and ultimately I expect to find them in every county. Two early season species now have filled maps as a result of my travels this spring and early summer: Roesel’s katydid, and gladiator meadow katydid.

Roesel’s katydid

Roesel’s katydid

There is learning involved in the process. Some species which historically have occurred in the area I have not yet found. Others I have found once or twice. At some point I become familiar enough with a species that I know how to find it. Then I seek it out in the appropriate habitat in the counties where I haven’t found it. The sulfur-winged grasshopper is an instructive example. This year I made a push to complete the map for this early-season species. Though I ran out of time before the end of its season, I got close.

Updated map for sulfur-winged grasshopper

Updated map for sulfur-winged grasshopper (open circles represent historical records)

Next year I will check sandy sites in two of the counties in Wisconsin, LaPorte County in Indiana, and Berrien County in Michigan. Though I suspect that sulfur-winged grasshoppers occur in every county, they are very few and hard to find away from sand soils. Though my own county of DuPage is marked, it is a clay soil county and over the many years I have lived here I have encountered fewer than 5 sulfur-wings in DuPage.

A final example is the northern bush katydid. I had heard two of these in the early summer of 2007, in woodlands in my county. I had heard none since. But a few days ago I went back to one of those sites and tried listening at night with the SongFinder, a device which reduces the pitch of sounds. Lo and behold, I discovered that Parson’s Grove at Danada Forest Preserve has a lot of northern bush katydids. I hadn’t realized that it was the deterioration of my hearing with age that had prevented my detecting them. Now I anticipate finding them in every county in the region.

So far this year I have accumulated 47 county records. I expect to end up with more than last year’s 174.

Short-winged Toothpick Grasshopper

by Carl Strang

The most fruitful recent singing insects search was at the Kankakee Sands preserve in Kankakee County, which has become one of my favorites for species that affiliate with sand-soil habitats. The June 28 visit yielded 3 county records, two of which were of familiar species, Roesel’s katydid and green-winged cicada.

Grasshoppers were building up their diversity at the site. Sulfur-winged grasshoppers still were going, and the season’s first mottled sand grasshopper also flashed his wings.

This was by far the earliest I have found this sand-soil specialist.

This was by far the earliest I have found this sand-soil specialist.

Then in the prairie beyond the savanna I started to hear the zuzz-zuzz-zuzz of stridulating grasshoppers. I had a hard time getting a look at who it might be. Eventually I saw a possible candidate.

This grasshopper has a somewhat slanted face, and color markings reminiscent of stridulating grasshoppers in genus Orphulella.

This grasshopper has a somewhat slanted face, and color markings reminiscent of stridulating grasshoppers in genus Orphulella.

Study of the photos, however, led to an identification as the meadow purple-striped grasshopper, Hesperotettix viridis, in the non-singing spur-throated grasshopper group. As I waded through the grasses I flushed out a couple really odd grasshoppers that begged to be photographed.

The blade-like antennas, subtle striping pattern, and especially the gangly skinniness of the critter were distinctive.

The blade-like antennas, subtle striping pattern, and especially the gangly skinniness of the critter were distinctive.

They reminded me of high school basketball players whose growth spurts have given them impressive height, but whose strength and coordination have some catching up to do. Though I saw and photographed only the minute-winged females, my identification and study convinced me that these were the stridulators. The short-winged toothpick grasshopper is well named, seeming to be constructed of toothpicks. It is a member of the slant-faced stridulating subfamily, and is described as being a frequent singer. The species, also known by the more mundane name of bunchgrass grasshopper (Pseudopomala brachyptera), now is removed from my hypothetical list for my survey region.

Recent Travels: Singing Insects

by Carl Strang

Though my main research focus is singing insects, I don’t end up photographing them much, as I am listening for them rather than looking for them. Sulfur-winged grasshoppers continued to be an early-season focus.

Though I added several more county records for the species, there was not additional range in their color variation. This female was at Cook County’s Bluff Spring Fen.

Though I added several more county records for the species, there was not additional range in their color variation. This female was at Cook County’s Bluff Spring Fen.

Here is a typical dark male, Illinois Beach State Park.

Here is a typical dark male, Illinois Beach State Park.

Not much different, this male was around the corner of Lake Michigan at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.

Not much different, this male was around the corner of Lake Michigan at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore.

Only 8 species of singing insects could be found at Goose Pond. There will be many more there later in the season.

Green-striped grasshoppers still were displaying, but their days are numbered.

Green-striped grasshoppers still were displaying, but their days are numbered.

Spring field crickets seldom come into view. This female was a challenge to photograph as she crawled among the grasses.

Spring field crickets seldom come into view. This female was a challenge to photograph as she crawled among the grasses.

This katydid nymph climbed up onto the sheet illuminated by the UV light. I am reluctant to say which conehead species she might be.

This katydid nymph climbed up onto the sheet illuminated by the UV light. I am reluctant to say which conehead species she might be.

The season seems barely begun, but already I am closing the book on two species.

The Vermont Cemetery Prairie Preserve in Will County reportedly is one of the few places in the Chicago region which still harbors prairie cicadas. They were done, however, by the time I got there on June 26.

The Vermont Cemetery Prairie Preserve in Will County reportedly is one of the few places in the Chicago region which still harbors prairie cicadas. They were done, however, by the time I got there on June 26.

I have just 3 sites to check next year as good candidates for persisting prairie cicada populations. Protean shieldbacks also apparently are done. I added only 3 county records for them in their brief 2016 season. This was a wakeup call, and I will need to get on my horse right away when they start next year.

 

Recent Travels: Butterflies and Moths

by Carl Strang

Though singing insects are my main research focus, I enjoy studying other critters as well. Here is a gallery of recently encountered butterflies and moths.

Not all travel has been out of county. Here is the first eastern comma I have found at St. James Farm Forest Preserve.

Not all travel has been out of county. Here is the first eastern comma I have found at St. James Farm Forest Preserve.

One day I encountered several hackberry emperors at SJF. Here is the usual underwing view they provide.

One day I encountered several hackberry emperors at SJF. Here is the usual underwing view they provide.

Another individual spread its wings in the sun.

Another individual spread its wings in the sun.

LeConte’s haploas are tiger moths that occur in the St. James Farm forests.

LeConte’s haploas are tiger moths that occur in the St. James Farm forests.

Here is another, providing a sense of this species’ variability.

Here is another, providing a sense of this species’ variability.

The UV light at Goose Pond brought in some moths. This one was familiar, a large lace border.

The UV light at Goose Pond brought in some moths. This one was familiar, a large lace border.

A few painted lichen moths also were drawn to the light. For some reason I was unable to get a sharp photo.

A few painted lichen moths also were drawn to the light. For some reason I was unable to get a sharp photo.

Despite much poring over of references, I was unable to identify this moth.

Despite much poring over of references, I was unable to identify this moth.

Recent Travels: Places

by Carl Strang

I have fallen behind on blog posts. The season is heating up, and I have kept busy doing various surveys in various places. Today’s start on catching up will focus on some scenes and miscellaneous photos taken along the way.

The Marquette Trail at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore passes beautiful marsh and sand savanna habitats.

The Marquette Trail at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore passes beautiful marsh and sand savanna habitats.

I found northern wood crickets singing along the trail. They bury themselves in leaf litter like this.

I found northern wood crickets singing along the trail. They bury themselves in leaf litter like this.

Another example of a wood cricket song site. I tried to get a look at one, but they choose deeply stacked litter areas with plenty of hidey holes and escape routes.

Another example of a wood cricket song site. I tried to get a look at one, but they choose deeply stacked litter areas with plenty of hidey holes and escape routes.

Painted turtles wandered the savanna seeking good places to lay their eggs.

Painted turtles wandered the savanna seeking good places to lay their eggs.

Another good sand area is Illinois Beach State Park. Here a trail goes through the zone behind the fore dunes.

Another good sand area is Illinois Beach State Park. Here a trail goes through the zone behind the fore dunes.

Farther back from the edge of Lake Michigan, black oak savanna lines the trail.

Farther back from the edge of Lake Michigan, black oak savanna lines the trail.

Though my main interest was singing insects, there were many four-spotted skimmers to enjoy at IBSP.

Though my main interest was singing insects, there were many four-spotted skimmers to enjoy at IBSP.

I also have spent some time in Kendall County. This plains clubtail was at Hoover Forest Preserve.

I also have spent some time in Kendall County. This plains clubtail was at Hoover Forest Preserve.

This year’s Indiana Academy of Sciences bioblitz was at Goose Pond in southern Indiana. I stopped on the way down for a walk at Turkey Run State Park. Ravines there provide many scenes like this.

This year’s Indiana Academy of Sciences bioblitz was at Goose Pond in southern Indiana. I stopped on the way down for a walk at Turkey Run State Park. Ravines there provide many scenes like this.

I didn’t end up taking any scenery shots at Goose Pond. As I was setting up the UV light, I found this mama spider crossing the road, her back covered with babies. All their eyes glittered like jewels in the headlamp.

I didn’t end up taking any scenery shots at Goose Pond. As I was setting up the UV light, I found this mama spider crossing the road, her back covered with babies. All their eyes glittered like jewels in the headlamp.

SJF Gallery

by Carl Strang

As recent posts have shown, I am transitioning into the singing insects field season. I will be spending less time at St. James Farm over the next four months, though I won’t be ignoring that preserve completely. So here is a collection of recent photos from St. James Farm Forest Preserve.

I was pleased to find that green dragons are scattered throughout the forest.

I was pleased to find that green dragons are scattered throughout the forest.

Both the smooth sweet cicely, shown here, and the hairy sweet cicely are among the late spring forest wildflowers at SJF.

Both the smooth sweet cicely, shown here, and the hairy sweet cicely are among the late spring forest wildflowers at SJF.

Wild hyacinths are savanna or woods border plants with only a brief blooming period.

Wild hyacinths are savanna or woods border plants with only a brief blooming period.

The somewhat weedy, open-growing common goat’s beard is a personal favorite.

The somewhat weedy, open-growing common goat’s beard is a personal favorite.

Earlier in the season I saw a female dot-tailed whiteface in one of the prairie plots. Here is a male on station at the catch-and-release fishing pond.

Earlier in the season I saw a female dot-tailed whiteface in one of the prairie plots. Here is a male on station at the catch-and-release fishing pond.

The grayish fan-foot, aka grayish Zanclognatha, has been abundant in the forest in recent days. The caterpillars live on fallen dead leaves.

The grayish fan-foot, aka grayish Zanclognatha, has been abundant in the forest in recent days. The caterpillars live on fallen dead leaves.

This eastern bluebird nestling looks ready to get out into the world.

This eastern bluebird nestling looks ready to get out into the world.

 

No Shadow of a Shadow

by Carl Strang

I didn’t find any periodical cicadas out in Addison or Wood Dale this year. That might seem like a strange statement, given that our local main emergence last happened in 2007, and the next is due in 2024.

A 2007 photo of representatives of DuPage County’s two species of 17-year periodical cicadas: Linnaeus’s on the left, Cassin’s on the right.

A 2007 photo of representatives of DuPage County’s two species of 17-year periodical cicadas: Linnaeus’s on the left, Cassin’s on the right.

I had reason to think I might find a few of these amazing critters here this year (they are peaking in Ohio in 2016, by the way). For several generations, now, starting in 1969, significant numbers of the cicadas have emerged 4 years early in the western suburbs of Chicago. This phenomenon, called a shadow brood, since has been found in a few other locations in eastern North America. It generally is thought to be a one-time deal, but the repetitive nature of this local shadow brood has me thinking there has been reproduction each time. Furthermore, the cicadas in the adjacent cities of Addison and Wood Dale appear entirely to have switched to the shadow timing. Residents reported them to be abundant in 2003. I found hardly any there in 2007.

The next shadow brood emergence therefore should happen in 2020. That assumes that there was indeed reproduction in 2003, or at least that local conditions again will result in some cicadas emerging at age 13 rather than 17. Those numbers are significant, as southern broods of related cicada species always are 13-year cicadas. Something caused a switch in some of our cicadas, in 1969 at least, bumping them onto the 13-year track. If they have been reproducing, then the subsequent shadow broods have resumed the 17-year life span. If you have followed this convoluted story, then you can guess why I thought I might find a few periodical cicadas this year. If the shadow brood indeed is all that exists now in Addison and Wood Dale, and something were to cause a few of them to make the 13-year jump now, 2016 is when they would have emerged. Perhaps a few did, but if so I did not hear any singing, nor did I see any shed nymphal exoskeletons, in this year’s tour of the two cities.

I will repeat my route each year, as I have done starting in 2014. A few cicadas out of the millions emerge a year or two early. I will be very surprised if there are any next year, but the anticipation will build as I look to a possible major emergence in Addison and Wood Dale in 2020.

 

Memorial Weekend Miscellany

by Carl Strang

As Gary and I toured wild places around Culver over the weekend, we found more of interest than sulfur-winged grasshoppers.

Many wildflowers were blooming, including lance-leaved violets at the Winamac State Fish and Wildlife Area.

Many wildflowers were blooming, including lance-leaved violets at the Winamac State Fish and Wildlife Area.

A number of rapids clubtails worked the sandy power line corridor at Memorial Forest.

A number of rapids clubtails worked the sandy power line corridor at Memorial Forest.

One sad note was a road-killed otter.

I had heard that otters have returned to the Tippecanoe River. This one climbed a tributary to reach the Maxinkuckee Wetlands, and became a casualty.

I had heard that otters have returned to the Tippecanoe River. This one climbed a tributary to reach the Maxinkuckee Wetlands, and became a casualty.

No photo to show for it, but we were impressed by astronomical observations as well. While sampling the variety of Hoosier beers Gary had brought up from Indianapolis, we checked out Mars and Saturn through the spotting scope. Mars, as close as it ever gets to Earth, was a reddish disk. Much farther away, Saturn appeared as a cute little image with the rings nicely visible and separate from the planet’s main mass.

We closed the weekend by attending the local VFW Memorial Day ceremony, and visited the graves of our parents, who passed away two years ago. Then we went our separate ways home.

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