Sound Ideas: 3 Ground Crickets

by Carl Strang

Today I share recordings of 3 ground crickets. The first of these, the melodious ground cricket, is not very well studied, and recordings of its song are not commonly available.

Melodious ground cricket

Melodious ground cricket

The song is a fairly loud, steady trill with a pleasant tone:

That song is most like that of Say’s trig, which can occur in close proximity as both are wetland species. When such is the case, the distinction is clear. Here is a recording of Say’s trig for comparison:

The recordings are a little misleading in that both species can be equally loud. Next up is the sphagnum ground cricket.

Sphagnum ground cricket. This species does not occur away from sphagnum moss.

Sphagnum ground cricket. This species does not occur away from sphagnum moss.

The song is higher pitched and more rapid than that of Say’s trig, which again often co-occurs.

The final species has an interrupted trill, unlike the continuous singing of the previous crickets. The confused ground cricket usually is found in drier portions of woodlands than the more swamp-dwelling melodious ground cricket.

Confused ground cricket

Confused ground cricket

The song is about one second on, one second off. If there are few other sounds, you may hear some stuttering during the “off” intervals:

 

Literature Review: Paleozoic Era

by Carl Strang

The first animals which unambiguously connect to present day forms appear in the fossil record early in the Paleozoic Era, which began 542 million years ago, billions of years after the planet first formed. Here are some notes from studies of this era published in 2014.

American alligator. One of the following studies places the split between the reptilian crocodile-dinosaur-bird group and the lizard-snake group at the very end of the Paleozoic Era.

American alligator. One of the following studies places the split between the reptilian crocodile-dinosaur-bird group and the lizard-snake group at the very end of the Paleozoic Era.

Cong, Peiyun, et al. 2014. Brain structure resolves the segmental affinity of anomalocaridid appendages. Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature13486 They studied the brain structure of Lyrarapax unguispinus, a fossilized relative of Anomalocaris, and found it was both simpler than those of its contemporary prey, and very similar to those of today’s onychophorans, or velvet worms, terrestrial southern hemisphere forest floor predators with unusual antennae that connect to the brain in the same way that the pair of grasping appendages connected to the brain of Lyrarapax. The similarities suggest a common ancestry.

Jourdan, F., et al. 2014. High-precision dating of the Kalkarindji large igneous province, Australia, and synchrony with the Early-Middle Cambrian (Stage 4-5) extinction. Geology 42 (6): 543. DOI: 10.1130/G35434.1 From a ScienceDaily article. The first major extinction event, which took out 50% of species in the Middle Cambrian, was caused by a mass volcanic eruption in Australia according to this study.

Morris, Simon Conway, and Jean-Bernard Caron. 2014. A primitive fish from the Cambrian of North America. Nature, DOI: 10.1038/nature13414 New Burgess shale fossils from the Cambrian of 505mya (million years ago) show detail in one of the earliest fishes, Metaspriggina, in which branchial arches are revealed as paired, with the first pair slightly thicker than the others (a step toward the first jaw). They had large eyes, and probably were good swimmers.

Shubin, Neil H., Edward B. Daeschler, and Farish A. Jenkins, Jr. 2014. Pelvic girdle and fin of Tiktaalik roseae. PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1322559111 From a ScienceDaily article. They describe the anatomy of the rear part of this fish, previously known only from anterior portions. This animal was transitional toward terrestrial life, living in a delta environment where the ability to cross over land from stream to stream was advantageous. It was large, as much as 9 feet long, with large teeth making it somewhat reminiscent of a crocodile. It was lobe-finned, had a flexible neck, and rudimentary lungs. Its well-developed shoulder girdle previously was known, but it had been assumed that it crawled with only its front fins. The surprise was that the pelvic girdle also is developed, with a ball and socket joint and strong hind fins, so these fish had rudiments of four, rather than just two legs.

Ezcurra, M.D., T.M. Scheyer, and R.J. Butler. 2014. The origin and early evolution of Sauria: reassessing the Permian saurian fossil record and the timing of the crocodile-lizard divergence. PLoS ONE 9(2): e89165. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0089165 They took a close look at Permian fossils in an attempt to resolve debate on when the split happened between the reptilian line leading to crocodiles, dinosaurs and birds on the one hand (archosauromorphs) and lizards and snakes on the other (lepidosauromorphs). They concluded that only the former have been found in the Permian, and place the earliest possible time for the split at 254.7 million years ago (very late Permian).

Tennessee Warbler Dossier

by Carl Strang

The Tennessee warbler is one of our more abundant migrants, conspicuous more by sound than by sight in spring as it is well camouflaged and moves slowly, often high in the trees. It often works closer to the ground and more frenetically in the fall.

Warbler, Tennessee

Tennessee Warbler

Tennessee Warbler

Seen as migrant in many locations in the eastern U.S. Judging by songs, one of the most abundant warbler migrants. Not an easy bird to see; moves slowly and infrequently, and colors cryptic among tree leaves. Song loud and distinctive, and for a week or so every spring the trees of woods and residential areas ring with their songs. “Sebit, sebit, sebit, sebit, seteeteeteeteetee…” Initial part just like Nashville warbler’s, but last part very loud, rapid and energetic with no slurring of notes.

10MY87. First of season noted.

13MY87. At Willowbrook, one bird thoroughly working one small area, with much turning of its head, short reaches to probe nearby leaves, short hops between branches, relatively slow-moving for a warbler. Also does a lot of slow smooth stepping along a twig. Foraging in box elder, black willow.

13SE87. West DuPage Woods Forest Preserve. Several Tennessee warblers together in a mixed flock with a magnolia warbler, a red-eyed vireo, a female rose-breasted grosbeak, and several catbirds and robins. The warblers remained within 10 feet of the ground, active and acrobatic, probing, changing perches frequently (2-10 seconds), very chickadee-like and unlike last spring. 11MY88. First Tennessee warbler song of the year. Gone by May 20.

18MY90. Lots of Tennessee warblers at Willowbrook. Cold spring. The only warblers heard on the 24th.

4MY99. First migrant noted at Willowbrook. Last noted there on 25MY.

12MY99. Slow and deliberate, on 1 perch a long time as they look around.

31AU99. First migrant noted at Willowbrook. First-year Tennessee warbler very yellow, with yellow eye line, but white under tail. In contrast to spring birds, very frequent perch changes, actively pivoting and reaching. Last migrant at Willowbrook noted 17SE.

7MY00. Several Tennessees in a mixed flock at West DuPage Woods, high in canopy. One was moving steadily when I first saw it, foraging and singing, then was still for over a minute on a perch, apparently doing no foraging, but alternating singing with bouts of preening.

24SE00. Tennessees have been abundant, lately. Today, a couple in hedgelike borders of the Prairie Path at West Chicago Prairie just east of Industrial Drive.

8OC00. A couple Tennessee’s at West Chicago Prairie.

12OC02. A few at Fermilab in old field areas.

Singing Insects Guide Updated

by Carl Strang

Each year I update my guide to the singing insects of the Chicago region. This year’s pdf edition is up to 3.5mb, with the addition of a number of new species pages and corresponding reduction in the hypotheticals section.

Cover

Cover

If you are not on the mailing list and wish to receive a free copy, send an e-mail request to my work address, cstrang@dupageforest.org

 

Sound Ideas: Platypus Pool

by Carl Strang

A highlight of my trip to Australia more than a decade ago was a peaceful morning spent at the edge of a stream bordering Mount Field National Park in Tasmania. I had expressed my desire to see platypuses to my hosts at the National Park Hotel, and they got permission for me to go onto property owned by friends, where they often sit and relax, and where there are resident platypuses.

National Park Hotel

National Park Hotel

It was the most peaceful place of my experience, and if I had a way to go instantly back to Australia, it is the precise place where I would choose to land. Occasional strips of deciduous eucalypt bark fell from the trees on the opposite bank, and once a brilliantly colored fairy wren, so chickadee-like in its behavior, passed by. I didn’t have to wait long for the first platypus to appear, and I got to observe those odd creatures as they swam, dove and foraged in the pool below.

If I returned, I would have a better camera. The platypus’s duckbill-like snout is on the left end.

If I returned, I would have a better camera. The platypus’s duckbill-like snout is on the left end.

I was writing music in those days, and the following is an impression of my feelings that morning.

Literature Review: Proterozoic Eon

by Carl Strang

The Proterozoic Eon spanned the immense period of time from 2.5 billion to 542 million years ago. It has captured the imaginations of many researchers, because its rocks have teased them with clues that hint at amazing stories, such as the first eukaryotic life forms, a billion-year stall-out of life’s evolution, a globe-covering ice age (“snowball Earth”), and the first appearance of multicellular organisms, which may or may not be connected to those we have today. Here are my notes from last year on some studies of that eon.

There was no terrestrial life in the Proterozoic, but this was the time when the Chicago region’s crust joined the North American continent, appending itself to the southern boundary of the Canadian Shield.

There was no terrestrial life in the Proterozoic, but this was the time when the Chicago region’s crust joined the North American continent, appending itself to the southern boundary of the Canadian Shield.

Northwestern University. 2014. “Mysterious Midcontinent Rift is a geological hybrid.” ScienceDaily, <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2014/10/141016132850.htm>. This article described a collaborative project, still unpublished, focusing on the mid-continent rift that left Lake Superior as its most visible feature. The rift was underway in the mid-Proterozoic when it filled with magma and stopped opening. More magma subsequently poured out on top of it, pushing the original body down and thickening the crust there. The feature thus combines rift characteristics with those of a large igneous province, and contains more volcanic rock than any other mid-continent rift on the planet. Incidentally the pieces of volcanic rock we find in local glacial drift came from that source.

Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia, Andy Ridgwell, and John A. Raven. 2014. A Neoproterozoic transition in the marine nitrogen cycle. Current Biology, DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2014.01.041  From a ScienceDaily article. They used molecular clock estimation to place the appearance of nitrogen fixing by cyanobacteria at 800 million years ago. This may have removed the nutrient limitation that was holding life back, setting the stage for proliferation both of biomass and of evolutionary potential. However, this timing also is just before the Snowball Earth glaciation event, and the authors suspect that the algal bloom might have sequestered enough carbon to be a trigger for that event.

Hoyal Cuthill, Jennifer F., and Simon Conway Morris. 2014. Fractal branching organizations of Ediacaran rangeomorph fronds reveal a lost Proterozoic body plan. PNAS, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1408542111  From a ScienceDaily article. They looked at the 3-dimensional structure of Ediacaran life forms (referred to as rangeomorphs), and found that their fractal designs efficiently filled the space around them. They argue that these were animals, living too deep in the sea for photosynthesis, which absorbed dissolved nutrients directly from the water. This was possible until predators, filter feeders and more mobile life forms rendered this subsistence style unsupportable.

Liu, Alex, et al. 2014. Haootia quadriformis n. gen., n. sp., interpreted as muscular Cnidarian impression from the Late Ediacaran period (approx. 560 Ma). Proceedings of the Royal Society B, DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2014.1202  From a ScienceDaily article. They described an Ediacaran fossil from Newfoundland, 560 million years old, concluding that it was a cnidarian with muscle tissue, the earliest animal with muscle.

Whitetail Deer Dossier

by Carl Strang

It’s time to start sharing some of my larger files of notes from personal observations of our vertebrate wildlife. This week’s feature is our local hoofed critter. The preliminary notes, written in the mid-80’s, are more extensive than usual. The dated notes that follow provide many illustrations of the value of tracking in behavior studies.

Deer, Whitetail

Buck in a bed

Buck in a bed

Deer can be seen in a variety of habitats. Their home range always includes some woodland, brush and meadow or marsh areas. They travel on well used trails, occasionally wandering off them to feed. Commonly they enter meadows to feed at dusk. In winter, they feed on browse. In northern Illinois they hit Rosaceae (blackberries, roses, etc.) early in winter, then eat a variety of woody plants, then by mid-February are eating poison ivy almost exclusively. Cottontails follow the same sequence of foods, but deer-browsed twigs usually are bitten off higher and have a torn edge from the deer’s lack of upper incisors. Through January (though mainly in October and November), bucks attack certain shrubs and saplings along trails, breaking twigs and usually also eating a couple (antler rubs). At Herrick Lake Forest Preserve I noticed that pioneer bur oaks in fields were especially exposed to this abuse.

Shrubs missing bark after being rubbed by a buck’s antlers

Shrubs missing bark after being rubbed by a buck’s antlers

Does in spring have fawns which at first remain quietly curled up on ground, freezing when approached. If they do wander, they will call for mother with a sheep-like bleating sound. As their size and strength improve they begin to travel with mother, although on occasion they will drop into a frozen curled position when a threat is detected. Spots can remain into late summer.

Deer flushed close have tail-lifting display, spreading the white hairs underneath (on small fawns the display is disproportionately large). At a distance, when at least partly in cover, they give a high-pitched, whistling snort, often accompanied by a stomping of the feet.

Bony antlers grow slowly through summer, covered with velvety skin. In late fall they dry, the skin comes off. By spring the antlers have been shed.

Tracks usually are 2-toed hoof marks. Leaping deer or those in deep soft substrates also will make 2 smaller dewclaw prints. In deep snow, the tips of the nails often make drag marks. I have seen deer leap over 6-foot fences, and tracks have shown horizontal jumps of more than 12 feet.

In May, deer on Reineman Sanctuary (PA) fed on fiddleheads of hay-scented ferns, but didn’t touch them after they unfolded. Among summer foods were leaves and twigs of greenbrier.

Deer tracks typically show two toes. Here, a deer was walking but accelerating.

Deer tracks typically show two toes. Here, a deer was walking but accelerating.

27DE86, Memorial Forest near Culver: deer recently browsed sassafras.

10JA87. Herrick Lake Forest Preserve. After last night’s heavy snow, tracks (made this morning, early) only abundant at a large patch of brush in SE corner of preserve, along N edge. All made early this morning except one flushed by a person who was tracking it.

11JA87. Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Deer were bedding in snow in same general area, had been there a while before my approach scared them up around 11:30 a.m. They had not cleared a place but just lay down, and the snow barely melted. Beds of the 4 deer were 5-20m apart. Other areas, similar in size and with sides pressed smooth by deer’s body (1 with hairs), had ground bare on the bottom (snow 6 inches deep). In the one with the hairs there were no clear signs of digging, but the others clearly had been dug out.

17JA87, Herrick Lake Forest Preserve. Half an inch of new snow fell the night before. I started tracking in the afternoon, but the tracks were difficult to follow as individual deer and small groups flowed together and apart, anastomosing their trails so that I couldn’t follow an individual for long.

18JA87. McKee Marsh. Better luck. 4 inches of new snow fell overnight, and I was able to follow a single deer for 2 hours, covering about a mile. I was able to stick with him (I believe it was a large buck). I began in the woods near the parking lot, where he followed a winding path, sniffing several shrubs and browsing on a Viburnum (3-lobed leaves and paired red basswood-like buds) and on buckthorn. In one spot where he urinated copiously there were symmetrical shallow hoof marks on either side of his trail, which had the effect of scooping snow into the spot where the urine fell. Then he emerged into open fields E of the woods, wound through a marshy spot, crossed Mack Road, then angled ESE. At one point he suddenly was spooked by a fresh snowmobile track, jumped to the left, then walked across the track and rejoined the trail. Occasionally I had problems when he joined another deer, but by finding every footprint I was able to stay with him until he re-entered the woods and joined 3 other deer. When they split I could not be absolutely sure which he was, but I have about 50% confidence that I followed the right one. He ate more Rhamnus, paused to browse heavily on a young bur oak, wandered up a hill, then joined another galloping deer (and 2-3 others), they all crossed Mack Road onto private property and I could not follow.

Where a buck urinated on his feet, blending tarsal gland secretions with urinary scents

Where a buck urinated on his feet, blending tarsal gland secretions with urinary scents

1FE87. Freshly browsed poison ivy, McKee Marsh. Also white ash within the past 2 weeks. Another deer browsed a woodland rosaceous small tree (probably crabapple), 2 inches dbh. Also a basswood. Twice, it defecated shortly after passing under low branches and browsing a few bites. I tracked the deer until I caught up with it in the cattail marsh north of the woods E of the marsh. It had turned to stand in a well hidden spot to watch me. When I got too close it burst from cover, bounded on through the cattails and through the field on the other side. Tracks in field took more of a bound pattern (not so spread front to back) before and after taller weeds, bounding high to clear them.

Later that same day, following another group of deer, I found where one had bedded briefly, at least, in the wet snow.

21FE87. At Greene Valley Forest Preserve. 5 bucks, still with antlers, traveling together as a group. They were moving fast when first seen, traveling through an open field between hedgerows at around noon. They stopped for a while after gaining a second hedgerow, then slowly moved in my direction (I was wearing a navy blue sweatshirt and dark brown pants, and kneeling). They always had one watching me, often all did, but didn’t run away until much later when I stood and walked. Once, a couple sparred with antlers. Mostly 4-6-pointers.

28FE87. At least 3 deer flushed from area thick with saplings and brush under scattered trees, only 150m from busy highway.

23MR87. Waterfall Glen. Deer dead beside creek near intersection of Cass Ave. and 91st Street. Lying in deer-beaver trail, hind feet in water (fracture of left hind tibia partly healed), head end up on bank. Dead at least a week, ribs largely gnawed away, head gone, muscle and internal organs mostly gone except hindquarters. Other tracks of beavers and dog or coyote (probably latter) nearby.

MY87. New Jersey Pine Barrens. Deer browsing blueberries, a little on oaks.

4AU87. Lebanon State Forest, NJ. 4-5 deer flushed from blueberry undergrowth, bounded until out of sight. Then one snorted a couple of times. I could hear them walking in even steps, without the hitching, explosive quality of a towhee. A little sharper and louder than the sound made by the gray fox seen shortly before. That night, as I walked barefoot in the dark, I came within 10 feet of a bedded deer. The deer detected me, and made a terrific racket getting to its feet. By the time it snorted so I knew what it was, I had taken 2 steps back.

Bumps on the head identify this newly spot-free fawn as a male.

Bumps on the head identify this newly spot-free fawn as a male.

3JA88. McDowell Forest Preserve. Following deer tracks, at least 4 days old. Browsed black maple, as well as several scotch pine branch tips (a broken-off branch, about 0.25 inches in diameter where browsed off; twisting and tearing of adjacent needles. Soon thereafter, browsed from a rose bush (prior to all this eating had followed a slightly sinuous path through maple woods, walking steadily). Tracks probably made New Year’s Eve (day before cold front). Feet compacted very wet snow, so probably late afternoon. Stopped to rub antlers on 0.75-inch dbh maple sapling, on its trunk from 1 foot to 2 feet up from ground, bark removed from one side. Soon thereafter it fell in with 2 other deer. Tracks same age, difficult to distinguish, but I believe the one I’m following has a longer stride. They paused to browse buckthorn, maple, rose (mainly the other 2?). Eventually the 3 bedded down beside a multi-stemmed, branchy silver maple in the midst of a field, about 100m from I-88 (in clear view; dark by then). 2 bedded together, third 10 feet from them. They stayed a little while, but still slushy when they left. They headed for the West Branch of the DuPage River, meandered, browsed, another antler rub. Lots of beds in that area. Tracks turn back along stream toward center of preserve. Lots of deer tracks enter and are present in that area by the stream, but none leave. The deer must cross the stream. I backtracked a bit. Buck had been with the others just before I picked up trail, probably was within sight of them throughout.

9JA88. Most of the needles on that pine branch now are browsed away. Deer commonly cross the river just opposite that grove, though routinely bedding among the yews and other ornamental shrubs between there and the stream. Once across, there is a tall fence paralleling the river and about 30 yards on average from it. The deer remain between river bank and fence. A heavily traveled corridor, a bedding area not far from that crossing site. Opposite the zone where I presume they also crossed the river last week, the fence is low enough for them to jump easily, and they either do that, or go under it at a nearby creek (more common), or continue along fence (also common). But soon comes I-88, and it appears to be a complete barrier on that side. A few cross the river there, a few go around the end of the fence. A very few go under I-88, on west side of river. None have crossed in that presumed crossing zone, but the ice probably has been thick enough to support them for only a couple days, and an open lead about 3 feet across runs along the entire east side along that stretch. That might explain why the tracks were running the opposite direction from last week on the stretches-in-common.

When you hold still and allow a deer to approach, it will stare at you and occasionally stomp a foot as though to startle you into moving and revealing yourself.

When you hold still and allow a deer to approach, it will stare at you and occasionally stomp a foot as though to startle you into moving and revealing yourself.

16JA88. McDowell deer crossed the preserve entrance road just west of the bridge, followed trail steadily between road and river (top of bank). Night before last, not last night. Lost in human and dog tracks, just before widening of area and feeding signs spread out from trail. Well below dam (at least 200m). There signs of much deer activity. Several beds in hill and old-wall area. More feeding and trails (well-used) in even wider area S of there. I flushed a large doe and 2 non-spotted fawns from beds in a pole-tree area a little farther down. They soon circled back around me (to my N). Visible parts: sharp dark horizontal line of back, horizontal white streak of belly cutting through trunks, from side; narrow white outline of tail from back, black nose and eye; brownish cast of fur against gray of trunks (not as distinct).

23JA88. McDowell. Deer recently browsed bur oak sapling. Tracked group of 4-8 deer into NW corner of preserve, brushy area seldom frequented by people, W of beaver pond (dam long, a winding 20-30 yards).

27JA88. Dan Ludwig flew over McDowell and passed on observations of deer: 8 in NW corner, 3 in NE near toll road (both groups west of river, and 6 SE, possibly off preserve.

30JA88. Hartz Lake. Deer trails through woods generally straight, and located to accommodate traveling from one goal to another (goals on either side of woods). Much interdigitation and side-paths abundant around the moist, tall meadows.

29AP88. Pratts Wayne Forest Preserve. Micro pressure releases in one or other toe show where push or pivot was greatest.

1MY88. Warrenville Grove Forest Preserve. Deer ate off tops of several Smilacina racemosa, plus a couple of Alliaria (and other plants, individually removed lower leaves). Not real recently, say 3-8 days ago.

7MY88. Deer tracks, Indian trails of Culver, also ate off tops of a few Smilacina stellata. At Hartz Lake, when one broke a twig loudly, jay responded with “thief” call.

15JL88. Deer heavily eating the Tradescantia at Fulton County museum property, not too long ago. Also eating Seymeria macrophylla.

Antlers nearly grown, but still covered in velvety skin as the bone matures

Antlers nearly grown, but still covered in velvety skin as the bone matures

1AP89. Patch of deer hair on ground in clearing at Hartz Lake. (I also saw some at Winfield Mounds last weekend). Shedding already.

2AP89. Hartz Lake. Deer in groups around clearing (in woods with very little understory) around 9 a.m. A deer snorted. I could just see it through the trees. The nose moved, perhaps a couple inches, but that was the largest motion I could see when it snorted.

13MY89. Hartz Lake, camping. In the dusk, 8 deer came to the prairie area (I was sitting at the opposite edge, by fire). Though basically a doe group, one yearling (small) buck was with them. He was chased a couple times, and a deer struck his back with a forefoot (not a mounting, but a blow). Smaller does still chase after mothers (presumed relationship) to be close to them, when alarmed. I kept still. They saw me, frequently moved heads side to side for parallax.

4JE89. Elsen’s Hill: deer trot pattern showing groups of two prints, 1 foot between prints in a group and 3 feet between groups. Two alternating group types, with front foot of each side ahead of hind foot of other side in that group.

21AU89. Deer tracks, Willowbrook Back 40. Emerged from run, NE corner. Walked down to pond, but stayed above edge (recently arrived, and had drunk from brook?). Nervous. Much starting and stopping, and stomping. Reached a small gulley, then broke into lope, as though the need for the longer step set off a release of nervous energy. 24-inch steps before the lope (toe-tip to toe-tip, measured diagonally). Tendency to splay left front foot and show its dew claws in the lope. While loping, set of 4 tracks 35 inches front to back, groups about 70 inches apart. The tracks were made last night (it had rained the night before last, the tracks made after the rain and after the soil surface had dried). About ten days later: In a hard lope up the hill, the deer showed dewclaws and spread toes on all but the right front. The deer stayed only a couple of weeks. We heard of someone who saw 2 bucks.

2SE89. Tracking deer across screenings trail, McKee Marsh. Stride tended to be slightly longer (23 inches toe tip to toe tip) in tall grass than on path (19-21 inches), except where adjusting stride to clear obstacles. At one point, a hind foot seemed to indicate a turn, falling and pointing to left of the front print, but in fact kept going in the same direction. Response to a disturbance as that foot came down? Implies independence of the 4 feet. Also happened the previous step with that foot.

15SE89. Hartz Lake, edge of open dune. Deer usually pause at edge of clear area before entering it. Shorter strides, and standing.

20SE89. McKee Marsh. A deer, steps 20-20.5 inches on packed screenings trail, became 25-27 inches in tall grass.

Sometimes deer tracks through tall grass are quite clear.

Sometimes deer tracks through tall grass are quite clear.

23SE89. Forest Park Nature Center, Peoria, IL. Deer have been browsing Aster shortii, a species of ridgetops, heavily in recent weeks. This has been their main food within the forest in this period, except for acorns.

24NO89. Hartz Lake. 2 deer beds, SE corner (behind cemetery) in woods. Windy day, saw 2 deer crossing road mid-afternoon, and as I studied tracks on the open dune a doe with a broken or injured right front leg limped past.

13DE89. Hartz Lake. Deer heavily using main north-south trail past couple of days (since snowfall).

16DE89. McDowell Forest Preserve. Patterns of deer activity in west part of preserve much the same as last winter. The only difference is a possible shift from the old home site to the center of the adjacent field in the north part of the preserve. If anything, there is even more concentration of activity to the north end of the preserve than before.

4FE90. Recently shed antler near mouth of Sawmill Creek, Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve.

Late MY90. Hartz Lake. A deer appeared to stomp and snort as a gambit to make me move. Odor and sound spooked them more than small movements.

9JE90. Winfield Mounds. Heavy feeding by deer on goldenrods, past couple of weeks.

Wet forest litter from a recent rain foiled this fawn’s camouflage. Fawn spots form individualized patterns that permit recognition of individuals as long as they last.

Wet forest litter from a recent rain foiled this fawn’s camouflage. Fawn spots form individualized patterns that permit recognition of individuals as long as they last.

30JE90. West DuPage Woods. Fawn moving about and exploring on its own. Still small, but strong. I held still, it slowly moved toward me, sniffing and occasionally stamping like an adult. When mother appeared, and bolted, it ran, too. Tail flag.

13JL90. McKee Marsh. As I was running through the forest, I saw a fawn, approaching half adult size, on the trail ahead. I slowed and quieted my steps. It bolted when I was 10 yards away, and its mother and its sibling, who were close by, bolted as well. Unless the mother gave an audible signal I missed (unlikely, though I was so focused on the fawn that I didn’t see her), she was waiting for the fawn to make the move. If so, she was teaching it to run away from people and to react on its own without depending on her signal.

2JE91. First fawn tracks of the year, Pratts Wayne Woods Forest Preserve.

Doe and fawn. By November, the fawns’ spots are gone.

Doe and fawn. By November, the fawns’ spots are gone.

21DE91. Hidden Lake Forest Preserve. Followed last night’s tracks of a very large deer, sex uncertain but more likely male. Traveled relatively straight lines through open field, but began highly convoluted turnings in a brushier area as it began feeding. Principal (only?) food Geum laciniatum basal leaves, nosed rather than pawed snow to reach them. Ate many. Went out of its way to examine a coyote or dog bed. Bedded, itself, several hours. Note: outward tracks from bed looked older than inward ones. Snow apparently less compactable, or more easily self-kicked back into track, with less smoothly compacted bottom of track and less crisp edges. Wandered and fed more after leaving bed. Defecated several times.

17FE92. Elsen’s Hill (W. DuPage Woods Forest Preserve.). I kept mainly to deer trails, saw 2 deer in a brushy area and, later, in a forest, saw 2 getting up from their beds. I stood still for a while, there, listening, and soon caught movement. Three deer slowly moved into view. Almost certainly the ones I had spooked, a doe and 2 fawns. I kept very still and they approached, the doe doing the foot-stomping test. Sometimes it appears to be largely a nervous expression, others it is very deliberate and calculated, the deer staring hard and keeping its head still while doing so. The fawns kept back. Several times she gradually worked to within 20 yards, then abruptly turned and ran, tail flagging, the fawns doing so as well. On one of these occasions she snorted several times. But I kept still, she didn’t go far, and repeated the process. The closest she ever came was 40 feet. I was wearing the green and black wool coat, standing clear of trees, with a medium density of 2-4-inch dbh trees and a few large ones in that area. The deer finally left for good at the sound of human voices on a trail not too far away, but the deer walked away rather than ran. During all of this there were occasional crows and squirrels seeing me and vocalizing. The deer attended the squirrels, but not the crows, starting at the squirrel’s bark and becoming more wary of me.

3OC93. Rock Island Park, Wisconsin. 2 bucks facing one another, heads lowered near to ground, maneuvering antlers. Like arm-wrestlers seeking best grip.

Early in the 90’s I had a season of deer hunting. During a several-day cold rainy period I sat for hours without seeing any deer. On drier days they were active.

Deer visited several times during the 90’s at Willowbrook. Usually they stayed 2 weeks at most, but during the summer of 1997 a couple of them stayed from May into August.

JE99, Kansas, Konza Prairie. A deer snorted and ran as I approached, holding head and nose above horizontal a bit while snorting.

15MY06. Fullersburg. A deer eating Virginia creeper leaves from a ground vine.

During the 3 years my office was at Fullersburg Woods Forest Preserve, I mapped the winter movements of the preserve’s deer. In the winter of 2006-7 there were 4 groups which followed consistent daily routes as shown.

During the 3 years my office was at Fullersburg Woods Forest Preserve, I mapped the winter movements of the preserve’s deer. In the winter of 2006-7 there were 4 groups which followed consistent daily routes as shown.

28AP08. New antlers beginning to grow on bucks (similar stage photographed 3 May last year).

New antlers just starting to grow

New antlers just starting to grow

15SE10. Meacham Grove. While doing herbivory data collecting I saw 3 antlerless deer. One, a fawn that had become spotless, made a persistent effort to nurse from its mother for a minute or so until she pushed it away. The third I believe was another adult doe.

Sound Ideas: Three Meadow Katydids

by Carl Strang

Today I am sharing recordings of 3 species of large meadow katydids (genus Orchelimum). One way or another their songs all fit the ticks-and-buzz pattern characteristic of their group. I will order them idiosyncratically, by how well I can hear them in the field. I will be interested in any comments on how well you can hear them in these recordings. The first is our most common species in the genus, the black-legged meadow katydid O. nigripes.

Black-legged meadow katydid

Black-legged meadow katydid

This was a very warm individual who was rushing the ticks. I render the pattern tickety-buzz, as there usually are 3 ticks leading directly into the buzz, with a brief pause before the next set. This species usually can be found in or near wetlands. I can hear its song unaided without any trouble.

Next up is the long-spurred meadow katydid, O. silvaticum.

Long-spurred meadow katydid

Long-spurred meadow katydid

Here the ticks have much the same quality as the buzz, several very brief rattles that merge into the rattling buzz. This is a katydid of woods edges and adjacent areas with tall herbaceous vegetation. I can hear some of these unaided in the field, on a calm day without other competing sounds, or when there are plenty of reflecting surfaces, but usually I need the SongFinder pitch-reducing device to detect them. I can hear this recording clearly, though.

Finally, here is a species I first encountered this past season, the stripe-faced meadow katydid, O. concinnum. It is a specialist in certain kinds of wetlands, and is much less common than the others.

Stripe-faced meadow katydid

Stripe-faced meadow katydid

This one I can’t hear at all from more than a few feet away, and I can barely hear it in this recording. I really need the SongFinder for this species. The ticks are more numerous, more separated, and more irregularly spaced, than in the black-leg.

Blue Jay Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

This week’s species dossier contains my observations of the blue jay, a bird I regard as the Forest Crier, who lets everybody know what is going on.

Blue jay

Blue jay

Jay, Blue

Lives in forests and old, tree-filled residential areas. Nested in the yard at Culver (15′ up in silver maple), riparian strip at Willowbrook Forest Preserve, IL (8′ up in small tree) and Maple Grove F.P. (10′ up in hawthorn at forest edge, incubating 31MY86). Bird reluctant to move when on nest. Eats mainly insects in summer, a lot of nuts and seeds in fall and winter. Forages from ground to top of canopy. Very vocal. “Eeth! Eeth!” sharp alarm call; rising, accelerating “a-a-a-ee-ee-ee-ee” (long a’s and ee’s) begging/feeding call of young (much like crows’); “ool-ool” and “teekle-teekle” calls accompanied by peculiar bobbing of body. Captive reared birds at the Willowbrook Wildlife Center often used this latter movement in concert with vocal mimicries (whistles, telephone ringing). Low, highly musical, conversation-like vocalizations among Willowbrook’s caged birds. Wild birds mimic calls of various hawks. They travel in loosely organized flocks much of the year. Mob crows in spring. Courtship feeding observed in a treetop at Maple Grove F.P. on 10MY86. Tend to take over feeders, other birds stay away until they leave.

15JE86. As a broad-winged hawk flew past, pursued by a couple of starlings at Maple Grove, a blue jay uttered a single “eeth!” call.

Late summer 86. As a flock of ground-feeding grackles flushed at the approach of people, jays and downy woodpeckers at Meacham Grove emitted contact calls, apparently as a final check of location and status before possible flight.

11MY88. Responded to deer breaking twig loudly with “thief” call, Hartz Lake.

12MY88. Jay on nest in 20′ box elder, nest 15′ up, riparian strip of Willowbrook Back 40.

5JE88. In the middle of Geneva I stood under a tree in which a pair of cardinals suddenly began to alarm-call rapidly. They were close to me, but not paying attention to me. The calls were directed at a blue jay which the cardinals chased from the isolated street-side tree to a clump of trees and brush, and continued the alarm calling and chasing until the jay left. The jay resisted some, was not driven off easily.

29MY88. Hartz Lake, in woods. A chipmunk saw me move my arm laterally, gave 3 chips increasing in speed, and ran. Immediately 2 jays feeding on the ground flew up. They were 40-50 feet away.

13JL88. Blue jay young still following, begging from parent, though they look full grown.

18OC88. Cactus Camp, IN. A blue jay yelling at me with repeated, energetic “jay jay” (“thief thief,” “eeth eeth”) calls.

24DE88. Cactus Camp. Jays doing a lot of “jay” mobbing; information about animals moving away from me?

4JE89. Elsen’s Hill Forest Preserve, IL. Teekettle call used as a warning to an intruding jay, given as the intruder landed. After several repetitions the intruder hadn’t left, and so the calling bird flew into the same oak and began to displace it (flights of 10-20 feet). It “jay”ed once, then resumed “teakettles,” continuing displacements and increasing their frequency, until the intruder left.

11JE89. Cactus Camp. Pair of jays mobbed me with loud “jay” calls.

17JE89. A broad-wing called repeatedly, in north end of Maple Grove. Jays, flickers and grackles highly agitated, flickers the most continuously vocal with “keels” every 2 seconds (2 birds). Grackles gacking frequently, too. A great crested flycatcher near, also vocal, but not clearly in response to the hawk; same with chickadees. Robins definitely disturbed, with nervous dee-dee-dee’s every 20 seconds or so. Jays in bursts, with several birds mobbing.

18AU89. Willowbrook marsh. Kestrel and jays. Latter making a strange, harsh, parrot-like call. Chasing, mobbing. Kestrel seemed to stoop at the jays a couple times, but the jays kept mobbing until the kestrel left.

31AU89. Jays vigorously “jay”-ing at a great horned owl well hidden among leaves in a willow top. Chipmunks chucking nearby, below.

3SE89. Jays maintain contacts with a-a calls (long a’s) and a variety of squeaky notes.

14OC89. Cactus Camp. Jays “jay”ing at a hawk, landing on branches nearby. Hawk appeared to be a red-tail, but was down inside forest. Jays stayed with it as it flew.

Late MY90. Cactus Camp. Jays foraged in accumulated oak leaves in the open among short brush by perching on tree or sapling branches, searching the ground, and making short flights out.

 

Literature Review: Hadean and Archean Eons

by Carl Strang

Today’s post begins a series of weekly updates from last year’s literature on prehistoric life and the associated geology. In this one I include selected studies of our planet’s first two eons, covering the first 2 billion years (out of 4.6 total) of the Earth’s existence. The Hadean Eon is defined by the lack of surviving crust. It is known mainly from moon rocks, which along with certain deep-Earth data have told of a collision between the early Earth and a Mars-sized object named Theia. The moon was a product of that collision. The following Archean Eon brought the first-formed planetary crust, oceans, and the origin of life.

Hadean Eon

Arpita, Roy, et al. 2014. Earthshine on a young moon: explaining the lunar farside highlands. Astrophysical Journal Letters, DOI: 10.1088/2041-8205/788/2/L42 The far side of the moon has hardly any maria, unlike the familiar near side which has large areas covered by those ancient lava flows. This paper provides an explanation as to why the far side crust is so much thicker, so that meteor strikes did not so readily punch through. It is built on the collision that formed the moon. Both Earth and moon were much closer together at first, and the moon became tidally locked, so that the one side always faced the Earth. The heat of the Earth kept the near side hotter and molten longer, so that aluminum and calcium compounds cooled sooner and fell out more thickly on the far side, ultimately combining with silicates to form a thicker, feldspar-rich crust there.

Herwartz, D., A. Pack, B. Friedrichs, and A. Bischoff. 2014. Identification of the giant impactor Theia in lunar rocks. Science 344 (6188): 1146-1150. Data casting doubt on the Theia collision hypothesis were based on lunar rocks that had been contaminated through contact with Earth. New measurements taken from samples returned by NASA missions from the moon confirm that the proportion of Earth material in the moon is low enough to fit collision models.

Valley, John W., et al. 2014. Hadean age for a post-magma-ocean zircon confirmed by atom-probe tomography. Nature Geoscience, DOI: 10.1038/ngeo2075  They found zircon crystals in certain Australian rocks that formed 4.4 billion years ago, pushing back the earliest crust formation time and potentially permitting the formation of life earlier than had been thought. They suggest a hydrosphere may have existed as soon as 100 million years after the Theia collision.

Stromatolite fossil, Kakabeka Falls Provincial Park, Ontario. Stromatolites were colonial photosynthetic bacteria, responsible for the initial buildup of oxygen in the Archean atmosphere.

Stromatolite fossil, Kakabeka Falls Provincial Park, Ontario. Stromatolites were colonial photosynthetic bacteria, responsible for the initial buildup of oxygen in the Archean atmosphere.

Archean Eon

Russell, Michael J., et al. 2014. The drive to life on wet and icy worlds. Astrobiology 14 (4): 308. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2013.1110  From a ScienceDaily article. They are examining one way life could make a start, around alkaline thermal vents at the bottom of an otherwise acidic (carbon dioxide rich) ocean. “Life takes advantage of unbalanced states on the planet, which may have been the case billions of years ago at the alkaline hydrothermal vents,” said Russell. “Life is the process that resolves these disequilibria.” The article describes two possible geological analogs to processes that go on in mitochondria. One imbalance is in protons, or hydrogen ions, which would have been more concentrated on the outsides of vent chimneys. The other would be the gradient from the methane and hydrogen in the vent to carbon dioxide in the surrounding ocean, which could have produced an electron transfer. The mineral analogs to enzymes are thought to have been “green rust” (not further identified in the article; its participation could have stored energy from the proton imbalance in a phosphate-containing molecule) and molybdenum (known to transfer two electrons at a time in physiological processes). They point out that these are processes that could be common on other watery planets.

Martin, William F., Filipa L. Sousa, and Nick Lane. 2014. Energy at life’s origin. Science 344:1092-1093. They compare the energy-releasing chemical reactions common to living things and find them to be similar to those going on at alkaline hydrothermal vents, suggesting that such places were where life began.

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