Handsome Trig Hijinks

by Carl Strang

Last year I followed a tip from Joe Balynas and found handsome trigs (Phyllopalpus pulchellus) established along the Cal Sag Channel, an extension of the Calumet River, in southern Cook County. This apparently was the first finding of the species in northern Illinois.

The handsome trig’s scientific name translates to something like “beautiful little leaf-mouth,” a reference to the expanded tips of its palps.

The Cal Sag Channel points toward the southeast corner of my own DuPage County, and I resolved that this year I would follow the trails along that waterway, and discover how far the trigs had come. That plan was blown to pieces on August 18. I was running along a recreational trail in Wheaton, central DuPage, when I heard the ratcheting mechanical trill of a handsome trig. I stopped to search, and was amazed to find four of the little crickets on the underside of a burdock leaf. Over the following weeks, I heard handsome trigs in scattered other locations in the southern half of DuPage County. I went back to southern Cook, and rode my bicycle west along trails that follow the Des Plaines River, past the point where it forms a complex with the Cal Sag Channel and the Chicago Sanitary Canal. Handsome trigs were audible at intervals along the trail, all the way into DuPage County’s Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. This was one route by which the species may have reached my county.

What the hey? I have been able to recognize the handsome trig’s song for years, now. I had not found them in my own home county until 2017, and now suddenly they are in scattered spots across southern DuPage. Something about this year has favored the species, as they seem to be more numerous across the Chicago region. In 2017 I also added records for Will County, Illinois, Starke County, Indiana, and Berrien County, Michigan. This last is a new find for southwestern Michigan, but not for the state, as a recent paper reported them in southeastern Michigan (O’Brien, Mark F., and Julie A. Craves. 2016. Phyllopalpus pulchellus Uhler, the handsome trig (Orthoptera: Gryllidae), a confirmed Michigan resident. Great Lakes Entomol. 49:202-203).

The handsome trig is another species of singing insect that is expanding its range northward. It seems reasonable to think that they quietly have been spreading in DuPage County for years, but conditions in 2017 elevated their little local populations to the point where they drew my attention. I will be interested in following their numbers and possible ongoing range extension in coming seasons.

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Season’s End Photo Bag

by Carl Strang

Time to share miscellaneous left-over photos from this year’s singing insects prospecting trips. These are pictures that didn’t fit the posts that covered the locations where they were taken. All are from within my 22-county survey area.

This regal fritillary fed from blazing star flowers at an eastern Illinois location far from this rare species’ main Illinois range.

This regal fritillary fed from blazing star flowers at an eastern Illinois location far from this rare species’ main Illinois range.

Though field guides describe the common checkered-skipper as eastern North America’s most abundant butterfly, it is not one I encounter very often.

Though field guides describe the common checkered-skipper as eastern North America’s most abundant butterfly, it is not one I encounter very often.

This bush katydid flew to a high perch on a tree but remained just long enough for me to take a distant photo before moving on. I don’t know enough to identify the species.

This bush katydid flew to a high perch on a tree but remained just long enough for me to take a distant photo before moving on. I don’t know enough to identify the species.

Handsome trig. I added one more Indiana county to the ones where I have found this cricket, but have yet to find it in any of the Chicago region’s other states.

Handsome trig. I added one more Indiana county to the ones where I have found this cricket, but have yet to find it in any of the Chicago region’s other states.

Straight-lanced meadow katydid. I found this species in 6 more counties in 2015, in Wisconsin, Illinois and Indiana.

Straight-lanced meadow katydid, long winged form. I found this species in 6 more counties in 2015, in Wisconsin, Illinois and Indiana.

Morgan Monroe-Yellowwood Ecoblitz

by Carl Strang

The Indiana Forest Alliance is sponsoring a multi-year species survey of the back country portion of the conjoined Morgan Monroe and Yellowwood State Forests in Monroe and Brown Counties of southern Indiana. They are holding bioblitz weekends at various seasons so as to get a more complete picture than a single bioblitz would produce. Jeff and Mary Stant are providing the principal organizational and logistical support. I paid my first visit on September 12 to begin inventorying the singing insect species.

While waiting my turn to go into the survey area, I checked out the base camp in an old field with scattered young trees adjacent to the riparian edge of a wooded stream. The species mix was much like I would expect to find in a dry area in northern Indiana or Illinois.

Woodland meadow katydids were very common in woodland edges, much more abundant than I have found them farther north.

Woodland meadow katydids were very common in woodland edges, much more abundant than I have found them farther north.

The old field held scattered common meadow katydids.

The old field held scattered common meadow katydids.

Handsome trigs also were common in the riparian edge.

Handsome trigs also were common in the riparian edge.

Allard’s ground crickets were one of several species at the camp.

Allard’s ground crickets were one of several species at the camp.

The forested survey area was, as expected, less diverse, though the cool afternoon temperature probably inhibited some species. The slopes held scattered confused ground crickets, and bottomland herbaceous thickets were full of Say’s trigs, along with good numbers of Carolina ground crickets and more scattered jumping bush crickets and narrow-winged tree crickets.

At one point we flushed out a medium-sized cricket which permitted a quick photo but evaded capture. It was one of the camel crickets, probably in genus Ceuthophilus.

At one point we flushed out a medium-sized cricket which permitted a quick photo but evaded capture. It was one of the camel crickets, probably in genus Ceuthophilus.

We went up to a ridge top in the evening. It was very cold, and few species were managing to sing. There were scattered tinkling ground crickets, Carolina ground crickets, jumping bush crickets, and a few feebly ticking long-spurred meadow katydids. A background hum came from the forest canopy, and occasional individuals could be distinguished to support an identification of Davis’s tree crickets, by far the most abundant singers on that cold night.

I look forward to returning for more ecoblitz weekends next year.

 

Sound Ideas: Trigs

by Carl Strang

The first field recording I made this year was at the Connor Prairie bioblitz near Indianapolis, of a mysterious cricket that sounded just like the familiar Say’s trig but was in a mesic prairie habitat and was singing too early in the season. Here is what it sounded like:

With much effort I caught one, and this clearly was no Say’s trig. I collected him.

The head is entirely dark, unlike Say’s trig (see below).

The head is entirely dark, unlike Say’s trig (see below).

It proved to be a spring trig, in the same genus but a distinct species, and in the process of being described by specialists. Until that happens, its label in the Singing Insects of North America website is Anaxipha species G.Say’s trig has a paler head, with a dark line descending diagonally from each compound eye.

Say’s trig female

Say’s trig female

Say’s trig is abundant throughout the Chicago region, in marshes, wet meadows and bottomland woods. So far I have found the spring trig fairly common in Fulton County, Indiana, at the southeast corner of the region, but it diminishes to rare individuals in northeast Illinois. Its preference is grassy prairies and mesic meadows.

The region’s third trig species is the handsome trig, a cricket that seems to prefer brush or thinly wooded edges close to wetlands.

Handsome trig

Handsome trig

Its song is distinct from the other two. Each pulse of its trill has, at least to my ear, a sharp clicking or percussive quality:

A comparison of sonographs shows this difference.

Spring trig sonograph. The selected area is half a second of the recording.

Spring trig sonograph. The selected area is half a second of the recording.

Handsome trig sonograph. Again, half a second is selected.

Handsome trig sonograph. Again, half a second is selected.

The narrow, sharp attack at the beginning of each pulse distinguishes the handsome trig’s song.

Encounters Along the Way

by Carl Strang

As another season of field research into the region’s singing insects winds down, I am starting to look back at the highlights. Some of these were chance encounters that provided new photo opportunities. For example, there was a weakened common true katydid I found on a trail at Waterfall Glen in broad daylight. I didn’t have a good photo of the species, and posed him after removing him from the hazardous trail.

Unfortunately I neglected to place his hind legs in a natural position.

Unfortunately I neglected to place his hind legs in a natural position.

Another species for which I want a better photo is the handsome trig. Some were singing on a cloudy day down in Fulton County, Indiana, and one came out in the open, but the low light resulted in a less than sharp image.

Tiny but colorful, the handsome trig lives in the southern part of the region I am surveying.

Tiny but colorful, the handsome trig lives in the southern part of the region I am surveying.

The Indiana Dunes area provided several photographs.

This oblong-winged katydid female was emitting single clicks in response to the more complex songs of nearby males.

This oblong-winged katydid female was emitting single clicks in response to the more complex songs of nearby males.

A four-spotted tree cricket had escaped from my grasp before I could photograph it. While looking for it on the ground where it seemed to have gone, my headlamp revealed something better.

A female tinkling ground cricket, only the second member of the species I have seen (despite hearing hundreds).

A female tinkling ground cricket, only the second member of the species I have seen (despite hearing hundreds).

A similar encounter came when I was trying to get a better photo of a melodious ground cricket at Indiana Dunes State Park. Digging through the leaf litter in the area from which a male’s song seemed to be coming, I turned up a female ground cricket.

When I examined the photos, though, I saw that the palps were white. This was a female confused ground cricket, another species that was singing in the area, and the first female confused I have seen.

When I examined the photos, though, I saw that the palps were white. This was a female confused ground cricket, another species that was singing in the area, and the first female confused I have seen.

One of the last places I visited this year was the Bong Recreation Area in Kenosha County, Wisconsin. The prairie area there is extensive, and has a good population of common meadow katydids.

Despite its name, the common meadow katydid is much less frequently encountered than two of its congeners, the gladiator and black-legged meadow katydids.

Despite its name, the common meadow katydid is much less frequently encountered than two of its congeners, the gladiator and black-legged meadow katydids.

There were a few broad-winged bush katydids in the prairie, but I wasn’t successful in stalking one. This Texas bush katydid had to substitute.

There were a few broad-winged bush katydids in the prairie, but I wasn’t successful in stalking one. This Texas bush katydid had to substitute.

Such encounters, sprinkled through the field season, make for good memories.

Singing Insects Range Extensions

by Carl Strang

My other presentation at Saturday’s Wild Things conference reviewed the range extensions by 8 species of singing insects that have turned up in our region in recent years. I ran through them in the chronological order of their discovery, and then offered some general points.

Broad-winged tree cricket (Oecanthus latipennis)

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Map from the Singing Insects of North America website (SINA), 2012. The record in DuPage County resulted from this study, and was added in 2006. Prior to that the species was not supposed to occur in the Chicago region.

Map from the Singing Insects of North America website (SINA), 2012. The record in DuPage County resulted from this study, and was added in 2006. Prior to that the species was not supposed to occur in the Chicago region.

Original range sources: Hebard 1934  (“Northern limits of distribution are Hilliary and Quincy”), McCafferty & Stein 1976 described it as a central and southern species in Indiana, with Tippecanoe County the northern extent. I found them in DuPage County in 2006, and subsequently learned they are abundant throughout the county. They also have reached the junction of the Wisconsin and Mississippi Rivers in Wisconsin.

Jumping bush cricket (Orocharis saltator)

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Jumping bush cricket SINA map, 2012. The added red line indicates the northern range limit as of 1969, when Tom Walker reviewed the genus.

Jumping bush cricket SINA map, 2012. The added red line indicates the northern range limit as of 1969, when Tom Walker reviewed the genus.

Original range sources: Hebard 1934 (Shawneetown northern limit in Illinois; “should however be found throughout southern Illinois as it is known as far north as central Indiana”). McCafferty & Stein 1976 (“known only from the southern two-thirds of the state” with Tippecanoe County given as the northern limit). They are rapidly expanding in DuPage County, abundant in the southern half and spreading into the northern half with new northern limits found annually. I also have heard them at Indiana Dunes State Park.

Roesel’s katydid (Metrioptera roesellii)

Roesel's s-wing female Purdue b

Roesel’s katydid SINA map, 2012. Prior to work by Scott Namestnik and me, the range was thought to end in northeastern Ohio, with a small disjunct area in northeast Illinois. The red dots indicate our added findings in 2012.

Roesel’s katydid SINA map, 2012. Prior to work by Scott Namestnik and me, the range was thought to end in northeastern Ohio, with a small disjunct area in northeast Illinois. The red dots indicate our added findings in 2012.

Original range sources: Roesel’s katydid is a European species that in North America first was found in two suburbs of Montreal, Quebec (Urquhart and Beaudry 1953, Beaudry 1955), and is thought to have been introduced between 1945 and 1951. Vickery (1965), who summarized this history, reported that the species had spread into New York state and Vermont by 1965, and that the long-winged variants that originally had dominated the Montreal population were diminishing in favor of the short-winged forms typical of the European continent. The Montreal population apparently was by then limited by an indigenous parasitic nematode. Roesel’s reached Ithaca, NY, by 1965 (G.K. Morris, as reported by Shapiro 1995), and Long Island by 1990 (Shapiro 1995). Short-winged forms were dominating the St. John, New Brunswick, population by 2008 (McAlpine 2009), and so had arrived some unknown number of years earlier. Nickle (1984) reported finding them in Pennsylvania by the early 1980’s. Roesel’s katydids were collected in two northeastern Illinois counties in the late 1990’s (Eades and Otte, no date). I found them in north central Indiana in 2007, and subsequently Scott Namestnik and I have found them throughout northern Indiana (as far south as Indianapolis) northeast Illinois, and last year the Lower Peninsula of Michigan. Others have added Ohio, Wisconsin and eastern Iowa.

Round-tipped conehead (N. retusus)

Roesel’s katydid SINA map, 2012. Prior to work by Scott Namestnik and me, the range was thought to end in northeastern Ohio, with a small disjunct area in northeast Illinois. The red dots indicate our added findings in 2012.

 

Round-tipped conehead SINA map, 2012. The added red line indicates the northern extent of the range in Illinois in 1934 and in Indiana in 1976.

Round-tipped conehead SINA map, 2012. The added red line indicates the northern extent of the range in Illinois in 1934 and in Indiana in 1976.

Original range sources: Hebard 1934 (“Urbana is a northern limital point”), and McCafferty and Stein (1976) had none north of Indianapolis, but they are so common in northwest Indiana and northeast Illinois now that this is a well advanced range expansion in the intervening decades. I also heard a single singing individual in a meadow at Wyalusing State Park in Wisconsin in 2007.

Handsome trig (Phyllopalpus pulchellus)

Handsome trig 2b

Handsome trig SINA map, 2012. The northern dot at St. Joseph County, Indiana, is the result of Scott Namestnik’s work.

Handsome trig SINA map, 2012. The northern dot at St. Joseph County, Indiana, is the result of Scott Namestnik’s work.

Original range sources: Hebard 1934 (northern limits given as Marion County in Indiana and Monticello in Illinois; “confined to southern and central Illinois”). McCafferty & Stein 1976 indicated a northern extent in Tippecanoe County. In 2009 Scott Namestnik was posting photos of them from St. Joseph County.

Swamp cicada (Tibicen tibicen)

Swamp cicada 4AU 4b

Original range sources: This species was mentioned by Alexander, Pace and Otte in their (1972) Michigan singing insects paper, but they expressed doubt that it was a breeding species in the state. However, a later paper (Marshall, Cooley, Alexander and Moore 1996) reported finding it in extreme southern MI (intensive searching found it only in the southern portions only of the southern tier of counties. They were not willing to say whether this represented a range extension or the species being missed earlier). I first found it in Marshall County, Indiana, and DuPage County, Illinois, in 2010, but suspected I had heard it earlier. They are scattered across the southern half of DuPage.

Slightly musical conehead (N. exiliscanorus)

Slightly musical Max Wet b

Slightly musical conehead SINA map. This does not yet reflect our finding them in Porter and Marshall Counties, Indiana, in 2012.

Slightly musical conehead SINA map. This does not yet reflect our finding them in Porter and Marshall Counties, Indiana, in 2012.

Original range sources: Hebard 1934 (northern limits indicated as Tower Hill in south central Illinois, and New Harmony in Indiana). McCafferty & Stein 1976 (“In Indiana it is known only from heavy thickets and grasses along the Ohio River”). Gideon Ney, Nathan Harness and I, seeking slender coneheads, found this species at the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore in 2012, and I found it in Marshall County as well.

Marsh conehead (N. palustris)

Slightly musical conehead SINA map. This does not yet reflect our finding them in Porter and Marshall Counties, Indiana, in 2012.

 

Marsh conehead SINA map. This does not yet reflect our finding them in Porter County, Indiana, in 2012.

Marsh conehead SINA map. This does not yet reflect our finding them in Porter County, Indiana, in 2012.

Original range sources: Hebard 1934 (“Lawrenceville and Carbondale are northern and western limits respectively for palustris…It is probably confined to the southern portions of Indiana and Illinois.”). McCafferty & Stein 1976 reported Tippecanoe County as the northern known extent. Ney, Harness and I found this species to be common at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and present in the state park.

General Points

Most of these range extensions are from south to north. Exceptions are Roesel’s katydid (east to west) and the broad-winged tree cricket (spreading south as well, according to SINA coordinator Tom Walker).

I do not know whether any other of these species likewise are spreading south or in other directions.

Some of these are clear range expansions, as they are species which were well known at the time of earlier studies, and now have become abundant beyond the range as then drawn: broad-winged tree cricket, jumping bush cricket, Roesel’s katydid, and round-tipped conehead.

The others have a spottier distribution, or may not have been as well known then, and so might have been missed by earlier researchers: handsome trig, swamp cicada, slightly musical conehead, and marsh conehead.

As for the possible connection between these range extensions and climate change, Gonzalez (2012) mentioned a calculation, based on work in Gonzalez et al. (2010), indicating that the region’s climate has undergone a temperature change equivalent to a southward shift in latitude of 100km in the 20th century. This is consistent with the magnitude of many of these observed range changes.

Houghton Lake

by Carl Strang

A priority site in this year’s singing insect survey work was Houghton Lake, a Nature Conservancy property near my home town of Culver, Indiana. The muck, marl and sand soils potentially support communities including wetland crickets and katydids that I have not yet found. Last week I spent an afternoon and evening walking through the site.

The property, named for this lake, is of particular interest as it hosts a population of rare massassauga rattlesnakes.

There are many smaller wet areas on the site, which is a flat postglacial lake plain. It has great botanical as well as zoological biodiversity.

For the most part I found a long list of familiar, common species.

Black-legged meadow katydids, like this female, are expected in wet areas.

As I walked the lanes I heard crickets singing in the pattern of Say’s trigs, but with a more mechanical or buzzing sound quality. I spent some time searching, because I thought they would prove to be a species I had not seen before. This effort was rewarded.

The handsome trig is one of the more beautiful singing insects in the region. They are tiny, around a quarter inch long.

Another unfamiliar sound was a rhythmic “warg warg warg” coming from a couple wet prairie areas. The song’s rhythm was like that of slightly musical coneheads, but that katydid produces a call with a distinctly buzzing quality. A comparison of recordings led me to the northern mole cricket. The mole cricket’s song is a chirp, but so deep that it is not readily characterized as such. Like the handsome trig, this was a species new to my experience. For future monitoring purposes I was pleased at how far their songs carry, and that at least sometimes they can be heard singing in the mid-afternoon.

A few conehead nymphs turned up in sweep net samples.

These probably will prove to be round-tipped coneheads, which mature later than most of their relatives.

An additional interesting insect was a great blue skimmer.

This was only the third individual of this species I have encountered.

Most of the conservative species I’d hoped to find at Houghton Lake eluded me, but I was only able to see part of the site, and I intend to return.

Comparative Block Counts

by Carl Strang

In 2010 I made enough counts of singing insects in the small rural town of Culver, Indiana, to compare them to my block counts in Warrenville, Illinois, of the Chicago suburbs.

I walked around similar sized blocks in the two locations, counting the singing insects I heard. This is the south side of the Culver block.

The species count in Culver was 14; differences in species from Warrenville were the absence of Say’s trigs and common true katydids, and the addition of the lyric cicada.

Three species at Culver were abundant enough and showed enough of a difference in median counts to make statistical comparisons worth trying. Culver had more fall field crickets (median count 6, vs. 0 for Warrenville), fewer striped ground crickets (median counts 9.5 and 17 in the period of time covered by the Culver counts), and no statistically significant difference in greater anglewings (median counts 0.5 and 3.5 in Culver and Warrenville, respectively, during the sampling period,).

The Warrenville neighborhood had few fall field crickets in 2010. They were much more abundant in Culver.

I also heard two unfamiliar songs at Culver that may represent additional species. The first of these sang soon after dark on July 31, from a point off the ground and of the speed and pattern of an Allard’s ground cricket, but composed of dry clicks or ticks rather than notes or tones (listening to reference recordings the next day, I thought the most likely possibility was handsome trig).

During a Culver block count on September 4 I heard another unfamiliar song. The temperature was cool, between 55 and 60F, so the song may have been slowed. It had two parts, each consisting of fairly rapid phrases. The first part’s phrases were like doubled ticks, lispy in quality, produced for several seconds. The second part consisted of single ticks, reminiscent of the greater anglewing, lasting much longer (several seconds), and at a distinctly more rapid rate than in the first part. This pattern seems best to fit some member of the subfamily Phaneropterinae, the false katydids.

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