by Carl Strang
Spring emphatically is here. Seasonal milestones are being passed earlier than usual this year. Migrant birds have been coming in, so far mainly the ones that winter in the southern U.S. Migrants that wintered in the tropics are not expected to appear much before they usually do, but among the first will be the palm warbler. Therefore it’s appropriate to conclude this winter’s series of species dossiers with that songbird.
This small warbler is a frequently observed migrant, both spring and fall, wherever I have lived in Indiana, Pennsylvania, and northeast Illinois. Usually they travel in small groups (2-6). Commonly they feed on the ground, but also forage in tree canopies. They are readily recognized by their distinctive tail-wagging behavior.
26AP87. North Blackwell Forest Preserve. The song can be rendered “witch-witch-witch-witch-witch-chyer-chyer-chyer-…chee.” Very rapid and chattering. An individual observed foraging alone 3-15 feet up in saplings with leaves beginning to open. It spent most of the time perched, turning its head to look every direction, staying at a given perch 3-10 seconds. Prey were obtained mostly through hover-gleaning, with sallies mostly of 2-5 feet out from watch perches. It sang every 10-20 seconds. It also probed into leaf clusters beside its perch once in a while, but more with a drinking motion.
29AP88. Pratts Wayne Forest Preserve. A palm warbler was flycatching in a leafless tree. It also searched, with 1-4-inch hops at 1-3-second intervals, in brush near the ground. Its song was a series of “jerv-jerv-jerv” notes, slightly juicy or buzzy, 4-6 quick syllables.
30AP89. McDowell Grove Forest Preserve. Some palm warblers were performing mid-air sallies (perches achieved at 5-10 second intervals between flights, and the birds did not return after making a grab but continued to a branch straight ahead, after flights of 7-15 feet). Others were foraging on the ground, hopping on paved or graveled areas. One sang a loud song: “Der-see’, der-see’, …” fast, the first syllable barely there, much emphasis on second syllable, ~10 syllables per song, many seconds between songs.
8MY89. Last bird of migration noted.
1OC89. Hidden Lake Forest Preserve. Palm warblers were in woods at a field edge, with white-throated sparrows.
25AP99. Palm warblers were at the Morton Arboretum in an area with pine warblers and chipping sparrows.
3MY99. A palm warbler was foraging 10-15 feet up in box elder at Willowbrook, the first of the year observed there.
5MY99. McDowell Forest Preserve, afternoon. There was little bird activity, generally, except for lots of palm warblers (and yellow-rumped warblers) feeding.
15MY99. A late bird seen at Red Oak Nature Center.
1MY00. A flock of palm warblers fed on the ground in the center of the cleared prairie at Willowbrook. Some also moved into scattered trees in the prairie area.
24SE00. A couple palm warblers were at the Sparrow Hedge, Fermilab.
20OC01. Blackwell, McKee Marsh. A palm warbler gave call notes similar to those of a yellow-rump.
12OC02. Several palm warblers were at Fermilab in old field areas.
28AP08. Fullersburg. A palm warbler was giving a call note similar to the distinctive one of the yellow-rump, though possibly higher in pitch.