One Last Look Back

by Carl Strang

My recent blog posts have shared highlights of this year’s field season, as I searched for singing insects in the 22-county area I define as the Chicago region. Those accounts haven’t told the whole story, though, and I have a few last photos to shake out of the bag. These fill out some of the experience of doing this kind of regional study.

For instance, other animals have enhanced the delight.

The chalk-fronted corporal is a dragonfly I have encountered only in the northern portion of the region, in this case at the Lulu Lake Nature Preserve in northern Walworth County, Wisconsin.

Walsh’s grasshopper was a new one for me. Not a singing species, but an interesting find at the Poverty Prairie in DuPage County’s Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve.

Turkey vultures assemble at dusk on the Culver, Indiana, water tower. My travels take me back to my home town a few times each season.

Interesting and beautiful scenes are to be found in the relatively undisturbed wild areas which are my main destinations.

An early evening rainbow at Conrad Station in the Indiana Kankakee Sands presaged a thunderstorm-dodging drive home on July 2.

Pinholes between tree leaves cast solar eclipse shadows at Blackwell Forest Preserve. Though the moon covered around 90% of the sun at peak, I detected no change in singing insect activity.

One of the more beautiful scenes was this panne in the Indiana dunes.

I had hoped to find delicate meadow katydids in the pannes. Dusky-faced meadow katydids were a good find there, but that species has a solid hold in other dunes wetlands.

The Pembroke Savanna in the Illinois Kankakee Sands is one of my favorite sites.

I believe these white pines at Warren Dunes State Park in Berrien County, Michigan, are the same ones where Richard Alexander found treetop bush katydids in 1971. He described the trees as small, but all are tall now. They still foster pine tree crickets, but I did not find any bush katydids.

I ended up with 115 county records for the season, totaling all newly found singing insect species over all the counties.

So far, I have found sprinkled grasshoppers only in oak savannas on sand soils.

Dusky-faced meadow katydids at the Indiana Kankakee Sands were a Newton County record.

This curve-tailed bush katydid at the Jasper-Pulaski Fish and Wildlife Area in Indiana provided a Jasper County record for my study.

I found a healthy population of long-tailed meadow katydids, including this brown-legged male, at Ferson Creek Fen in Kane County.

The Ferson Creek population also had green-legged variants, including this female.

Lisa Rainsong, Wendy Partridge and I drove south to Loda Prairie to check out the bush cicadas there. I concluded this year that the species does not occur in the Chicago region.

This Texas bush katydid was singing in early October at Springbrook Prairie Forest Preserve, DuPage County. I had an observation of this species on October 17, my latest ever in the region.

Most of the long winter remains, and as I compile data, write reports, and visit museums, I will be looking forward to another collection of rich experiences as I resume my field study in 2018.

 

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Memorial Weekend Miscellany

by Carl Strang

As Gary and I toured wild places around Culver over the weekend, we found more of interest than sulfur-winged grasshoppers.

Many wildflowers were blooming, including lance-leaved violets at the Winamac State Fish and Wildlife Area.

Many wildflowers were blooming, including lance-leaved violets at the Winamac State Fish and Wildlife Area.

A number of rapids clubtails worked the sandy power line corridor at Memorial Forest.

A number of rapids clubtails worked the sandy power line corridor at Memorial Forest.

One sad note was a road-killed otter.

I had heard that otters have returned to the Tippecanoe River. This one climbed a tributary to reach the Maxinkuckee Wetlands, and became a casualty.

I had heard that otters have returned to the Tippecanoe River. This one climbed a tributary to reach the Maxinkuckee Wetlands, and became a casualty.

No photo to show for it, but we were impressed by astronomical observations as well. While sampling the variety of Hoosier beers Gary had brought up from Indianapolis, we checked out Mars and Saturn through the spotting scope. Mars, as close as it ever gets to Earth, was a reddish disk. Much farther away, Saturn appeared as a cute little image with the rings nicely visible and separate from the planet’s main mass.

We closed the weekend by attending the local VFW Memorial Day ceremony, and visited the graves of our parents, who passed away two years ago. Then we went our separate ways home.

Ted L. Strang, 1925-2014

by Carl Strang

We thought that Dad might hold on a while longer, but he simply could not live without Mom, and he passed away less than a month after she did. I wrote his obituary:

In his Navy uniform

In his Navy uniform

On his wedding day

On his wedding day

Ted L. Strang of Culver passed away on April 30 at the age of 88. Except for his U.S. Navy service in the South Pacific in World War II and immediately after, Ted was a lifelong Culver resident.  He was long known as one of the fishermen most knowledgeable of Lake Maxinkuckee. He was a pillar of Culver’s VFW Post  6919. At various times he was manager of the local A&P grocery store, a life insurance salesman, and a factory department foreman. Most of all, though, Ted Strang was a family man. As a teenager he met the love of his life, Charlene (“Chuckie”) Hausler, at nearby Bass Lake, where her Chicago family had a summer home. They married after his military service ended, and their marriage over the subsequent decades was a model of love and dedication. Chuckie passed away at the beginning of April, and it could be said that Ted died of a broken heart less than a month later.

With Gary, 1962

With Gary, 1962

He is survived by two sons (Carl of Warrenville, Illinois, and Gary with wife Lisa of Easton, Maryland), and by Gary and Lisa’s three sons: Greg Strang of Cambridge, Maryland; Captain Derek Strang (wife Christine), who is an Air Force pilot in Mountain Home, Idaho; and Lt. Brice Strang (wife Rachel), U.S. Army Reserve, of Easton, Maryland.

Hunting and fishing were family traditions. A good day’s results, 1949.

Hunting and fishing were family traditions. A good day’s results, 1949.

Fishing was Dad’s favorite activity. With walleyes, 1987.

Fishing was Dad’s favorite activity. With walleyes, 1987.

Ted’s Navy service was with a submarine rescue ship, and he was trained in rescue and salvage diving. He treasured his veteran’s status, and was a life member and past Commander of VFW Post 6919. He also volunteered for the American Red Cross in blood drives. On two occasions he shared honors as a co-Grand Marshall of Culver’s Lakefest Parade. His favorite personal pursuit was fishing, but he also hunted, gardened, carved and painted wooden duck decoys, and was a wonderful teacher as a father. His strong will was revealed when, after being a smoker for two decades, he went cold turkey one day and never smoked again.

With Mom and their grandsons, around 1990

With Mom and their grandsons, around 1990

Western Chorus Frog Dossier

by Carl Strang

An early sign of spring’s arrival is the sound of massed chorus frogs. Here are my limited specific observations of them.

Western chorus frog

Western chorus frog

Frog, Western Chorus Known in my experience mainly from DuPage County, IL, and the Culver, Indiana, area. In early spring they sing in large numbers, in crickety sounding calls, in temporary ponds. I saw one in the back yard of the house we rented in Glendale Heights. Small and striped, crawling in the grass. Closest pond where they sang was at least 200m away.

7MR87. Singing at West Chicago Prairie.

22MR87. Singing at Fish Hatchery, Culver, in first partial pond west of ditches.

12MR88. Brief song from one at McDowell Forest Preserve.

26MR88. Singing just west of Hartz Lake property.

27MR89. First song of year heard at McKee Marsh.

23AP89. Herrick Lake Forest Preserve. I water-stalked a singing frog, close enough to see it, or at least the movement caused by its singing. It was in or just above the water, which vibrated with the song. It was in a place where broken-down cattails created a small (almost completely covering) shelter. They sing in alternation: pairs, high and low. High starts. If a few calls do not involve a nearby frog in a duet, the first stops.

10MR97. Heard one singing while I ran on Prairie Path near Rt. 59.

20MR99. First chorus frogs of spring heard in 2 places.

30OC99. 1-2 (same one found twice?) found on an extensive mudflat at Fermilab.

5MR00. A few singing at Lake Law, Fermilab, in an area of shallow water and dense dead stems of cattails and grasses.

2MY00. A couple still singing.

24SE00. A few individuals singing weakly in the tall, goldenrod-dominated upland vegetation between the large lakes at Fermilab.

14OC00. Occasional song, still, at Fermilab. Much like spring peeper’s pattern of fall singing.

21MR01. First of year, a couple only, heard near Prairie Path east of Warrenville. A cold, lingering winter.

15AP01. Quite a few singing near the McKee Marsh outlet. 12SE01. I heard single brief song beside the prairie path north of Butterfield and west of Fermilab in late afternoon.

12OC02. A few weakly singing individuals at Fermilab, in low spots.

21MR05. One singer at the Hartz Lake property.

13JE06. Tri-County State Park. Chorus frogs and American toads have resumed singing after heavy recent rains have raised water levels, here and at Fermilab for chorus frogs, and here and at Fullersburg for toads.

5AP10. Mayslake. A jump in chorus frog numbers from last year. Last year they were at the stream corridor marsh only, and the maximum male count was 12. This year, up to 22. Furthermore, there were satellite groups in the parking lot marsh (3) and the reed-canary-grass pool east of the dog fence (5).

25OC10. Mayslake. Chorus frogs calling, three individuals in three places: one on top of a wooded hill; one in the middle of the meadow west of the dog area, and one a short distance south of the stream corridor marsh.

27OC10. Mayslake. A western chorus frog called from on or right beside the path N of the stream corridor marsh. No hibernaculum candidate there.

17MR11. Mayslake. First singers of the season, in stream corridor and parking lot marshes.

One reason chorus frogs can be difficult to see is that they often select sheltered places from which to sing. The edge of one’s expanded throat is just visible beneath the log.

One reason chorus frogs can be difficult to see is that they often select sheltered places from which to sing. The edge of one’s expanded throat is just visible beneath the log.

29SE11. Mayslake. At least 3 chorus frogs calling in close proximity in a reed canary grass area. Another in the main meadow W of dog fence.

Spring 2013. Mayslake. Hardly any chorus frog activity this spring, in the wake of last year’s drought, despite the re-filling of the marshes.

Striped Skunk Dossier

by Carl Strang

As striped skunks complete their mating season, this seems an appropriate time to share my dossier of observations on the species.

Skunk, Striped

Striped skunk

Striped skunk

I rarely saw skunks around Culver as a child, perhaps because of their nocturnal activity pattern. Saw one on a road south of town near S.R. 110 while on a run, at dusk, as a teenager. I took plaster castings of tracks at the Bird Sanctuary, Culver Military Academy. Later I saw some in the early evening, visiting picnic grounds at the state park on South Mountain in Pennsylvania. They moved with a somewhat rolling, unhurried walk. Individuals brought to Willowbrook in live traps almost invariably spray as soon as the trap is opened. The spray has a very sticky, lasting quality, and causes a sickening sensation when fresh and concentrated. Youngsters discover their spray ability when 6-9 weeks old. The distinctive black and white color pattern almost certainly is aposematic. That pattern is highly variable in detail, i.e., width and length of stripe, amount of white on head, and number and position of scattered small white spots. The skin beneath is white or black, corresponding to the fur color. Stomping, used as a threat, essentially is an emphatic dancing from one front foot to the other. It is employed against both conspecifics (littermates) and potential predators. The tracks have 5 toes showing, both front and back feet. In suitable substrates, the toenails of the front feet register distinctively distant from the ends of the toes. When toenail marks are missing, the track gives the impression of a miniature cat track (though with the extra toe). Generally, the entire footprint appears as a solid, unlobed block; creases across the soles of the feet are evident in medium-consistency substrates. Tracks rarely are encountered, however. Apparently there is very little activity in winter.

Skunk tracks, hind on left, fore (showing long toenail marks) on right

Skunk tracks, hind on left, fore (showing long toenail marks) on right

17/18FE86. I followed a fresh skunk trail. Gaits in deep snow (4-8″) were diagonal walk and lope, primarily, on an early spring ramble. This skunk ate some mushy crabapples from the previous fall. It went about half a mile on Willowbrook preserve plus an unknown distance on adjacent properties. The den (near Willowbrook picnic grounds) was a tunnel dug in a well-drained location, on an east-facing slope, sheltered by a crabapple. Tracks suggest it was shared with 1-2 cottontails.

4NO86. Diagonal walk in mud, probably the same skunk described in the previous account, at rehab area west gate.

28NO86. Sand seems to stick unusually well to the flat soles of a skunk’s feet, deposited on sticky mud to form roundish or oval spots of sand grains (Culver Fish Hatchery).

29NO86. Memorial Forest near Culver. Lope (bound?) In sand, 6″ between sets of tracks, each set 12″ long.

Sketch of track patterns in the string observed on November 29, 1986

Sketch of track patterns in the string observed on November 29, 1986

28JA87. One or perhaps more than one skunk on walkabout last night in Willowbrook Back 40. Paths extremely convoluted and interweaving, not enough time to sort them out. No skunk came out of the picnic grounds burrow.

3FE87. Skunk on walkabout again, same area. Suddenly it seemed to be taking great leaps. The snow crust froze in open spots at night, so the skunk did not break through in those places.

5FE87. Skunk pulled dead shrew (previously cached by fox) to center of trail but left it.

27OC87. A skunk ran across the road in our Warrenville neighborhood (Summerlakes subdivision) in early evening (around 6pm). It elevated the middle of its tail, giving it a strange, double-humped appearance.

18OC88. In Cactus Camp prairie, tracks show where a skunk dug out a yellow jacket nest recently. A few wasps still were flying in and out.

12JA89. A dead skunk on Park Boulevard at Willowbrook, came out mid-winter.

8SE89. Skunk diagonal walk, flat soft topsoil. Hind foot landing in front of and slightly overlapping front foot. HF 1-5/16″ wide x 1.25″ long.

8JA90. Willowbrook. On the night of the 5th or 6th, a skunk was out. Those were warm nights.

7MR90. Willowbrook. Skunks have been very active the past couple of nights. One has a burrow at the south edge of Willowbrook preserve, south of the stream. They made a couple stream crossings (water, not ice). One of these continued straight north all the way across the preserve.

Typical bounding gait pattern

Typical bounding gait pattern

1SE90. As I ran on the Prairie Path in Warrenville near the library in early evening, what appeared to be a large cat emerged from the vegetation at the side and then stopped in the middle of the path as I approached. Thinking to frighten it out of the way, I began to snap my fingers and accelerated. The cat was strange…it seemed to change shape. Then I saw the stripes and quickly backpedaled. It was a family of skunks, so tight together they seemed one animal in the distance in the dim light. There were at least 3 young with the mother. They had stopped and faced me, partly lifting their tails, all of which made the stripes easy to see even in the darkness. After I backed off they continued on their way.

25FE99. I found a skunk den in the far NE corner of the new Willowbrook preserve addition, under a pile of stacked old telephone pole segments. As many as 4 skunks were active on the preserve the previous night.

16FE00. A skunk on walkabout at Willowbrook last night, the first sign of skunk activity this winter there.

12SE05. Caesar Creek campground, southeastern Ohio. There is much evidence of skunks in the area. In the dusk, a large beautiful individual whose broad back stripes had joined, giving it a white back with just a little black between on the lower back, passed my campsite. Later in the dark, a smaller individual was digging grubs in the lawn of the adjacent campsite. This one was all black with a tuft of white on the head and another at the tip of the tail. It turned away when I shined a light in its eyes, coming as close as 15 feet. It moved slowly, its head sweeping back and forth sniffing, but when finding something to dig it moved quickly, excavating and moving on within about 3 seconds. The next morning I took photos of some of the holes, and of a pile of scats. The holes were mostly neat, ½” diameter, dug out on one side with toenail marks clear, occasional larger ones up to 2” diameter. The scats were stacked weasel fashion, each ½” diameter X 2” long, 3 pieces, one broken with a tiny root sticking out.

One of the holes described on September 12, 2005

One of the holes described on September 12, 2005

The scats described on September 12, 2005

The scats described on September 12, 2005

19JA11. Mayslake. From the night before last, which was the warmest this month (only dropping into the 20’sF), tracks of a skunk. It may have originated from the known den in the north stream corridor. Its winding trail covered much of the north stream corridor prairie, parts of the main prairie, cut from the small savanna at the north end of the prairie across the driveway’s turning circle into the strip of vegetation along the west edge of the preserve, wound through that as it worked its way north, eventually crossed the driveway again at the 31st Street Woods, and continued heading east along the north end of the parking lot marsh.

21JA11. Mayslake. I went to the known skunk den hole in the north stream corridor to see if it was the home of the skunk I tracked 2 days ago. It had not been entered or exited. I picked up the skunk’s trail where it had gone around the N end of the parking lot marsh, and followed it to a hole in the top of the ridge between that marsh and the stream (created when the marsh was excavated), and even with the marsh’s center. It appeared that the skunk had emerged and entered the hole, but the tracks were obscured by large ice crystals developing around the hole’s edge.  Later it occurred to me how unusual those crystals were. Are they growing on moisture from the skunk’s breath?

Skunk den entrances usually are around 6 inches in diameter.

Skunk den entrances usually are around 6 inches in diameter.

23FE11. Mayslake. For a time I mistook a skunk’s trail for that of a mink. What threw me off was the first impression, where the toes spread an unusual amount in thin snow over slick ice. I failed to attend the other tracks carefully enough for a long time, though I was somewhat bothered by the long toenails and the animal following the trail rather than the lake edge. As I approached the den near the friary site I saw similar tracks, confirmed much coming and going and digging at that den, then went back and found that if I had paid closer attention to all the footprints I had been following, I would have realized sooner that they were skunk tracks. The main underlying condition was the thin layer of snow over ice, with enough of a percentage of round-looking tracks resulting to sustain my error.

American Tree Sparrow Dossier

by Carl Strang

Today’s feature is my dossier of the American tree sparrow, a wintering bird that still is with us but soon will head back to the northern nesting grounds. The following notes reveal my interest in the complex range of this species’ vocalizations.

American tree sparrow. The black spot in the clear chest is a helpful identification feature.

American tree sparrow. The black spot in the clear chest is a helpful identification feature.

Sparrow, American Tree

This songbird is a common winter resident in old fields and residential areas with some bushes, in Culver, around Lafayette, in south central Pennsylvania and in DuPage County, IL. Usually they occur in loose flocks, often mixed with juncos. They feed on the ground, especially, taking seeds. Note: “tsew,” “tsoo” or “tsee” in a slightly melancholy minor key, hint of downward slurring. Has a 3-syllable call, a hair slower and more flowing than junco’s, very musical and pleasant in contrast. Single-note call has a descending tail, is much like white-throated sparrow’s.

26FE87. Song heard in Willowbrook Back 40: “Tsoo-too-doo-doo-dee-chew-chew-chew-chew.” Song loud and clear, of water thrush quality.

7MR87. Another song: “tsee-tsoo-bye-tsee-tsoo-tsoo.” First note held longer than others. Tsee syllables highest pitched, tsoo’s lowest. Sang from perch in top of willow clump, 6 feet up, at West Chicago Prairie.

13MR87. Still hearing them singing.

22MR87. Still present and singing at Culver Fish Hatchery.

15OC99. First tree sparrow of the season at Willowbrook.

20DE99. Tree sparrows eating Indian grass seeds at Fermilab. Sometimes their call notes are simple and flat, but sometimes they add a trailer that so far I cannot tell from white-throated sparrow’s. In conflicts they have beautiful, musical clusters of notes.

29JA00. A flock of 30 tree sparrows and 2 juncos feeding on the gravel berm edge of Swenson Road, Fermilab.

5MR00. A single still at Fermilab, in thick grass area with a few shrubs, beside trail.

The red on the top of the head, the white wing features and yellow lower bill mandible are additional distinctions.

The red on the top of the head, the white wing features and yellow lower bill mandible are additional distinctions.

23NO04. Willowbrook. A flock of tree sparrows in tall prairie vegetation using a call I don’t remember hearing before, a pardalote-like “wee’dah.”

16NO10. Mayslake. Many tree sparrows are in the west stream corridor along the southern edge of the mansion grounds. Giving an unusual call, less than a second long, beginning at a high pitch, slurring to a lower one, and quickly back up to the starting pitch.

6JA11. The more complex tree sparrow call can be difficult to pick out when many birds are producing it at once. When a single bird is isolated, the call has the rhythm of a quick, “tit willow,” i.e., three dominant syllables with the last two close together and a little more separated from the first.

2FE12. American tree sparrow call: dedjidu, quickly pronounced.

15NO12. Mayslake. Tree sparrows eating seeds of Canada goldenrod and annuals.

25JA13. Mayslake. On the ground in the off-leash dog area, an enormous flock of at least 100 tree sparrows, 30 juncos with at least one white-throated sparrow mixed in, doing the double-foot scratching to get through the snow and then reach, presumably for seeds.

Small Mysteries

by Carl Strang

Even when distracted the mind notices, finds questions.

Some remain intractable. Why has Culver, Indiana, become turkey vulture central?

Vultures roosting at the Culver town park on a morning last week.

Vultures roosting at the Culver town park on a morning last week.

There have been times in the past decade when 30 or more vultures circled above that part of the town.

Other mysteries are more easily resolved. Back at Mayslake Forest Preserve this week, I noticed a polyphemus moth cocoon on a small tree.

The oval shape, pale color, and loose attachment to a twig are distinctive.

The oval shape, pale color, and loose attachment to a twig are distinctive.

There has been no sign of this large species on the preserve in the years I have been there. But this tree was planted just last year, and checking my notes I found that it was installed in November. Obviously the cocoon had formed in the nursery.

On another day I was startled to see a red cedar decked out in structures like Christmas tree ornaments.

These are the spore-producing structures of the cedar-apple rust, which cycles between the cedars and apples or crab trees, and can impair both host species.

These are the spore-producing structures of the cedar-apple rust, which cycles between the cedars and apples or crab trees, and can impair both host species.

It seems the cool, wet weather promoted the rust’s development on that tree.

A questioning attitude becomes reflexive when one practices inquiry and spends time out-of-doors.

Eastern Phoebe Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

The eastern phoebe is the earliest tyrant flycatcher to appear in our area, thanks to its overwintering in the southern U.S. rather than the tropics. It won’t be long now, though the snow must go away first.

Phoebe, Eastern

Eastern phoebe

Eastern phoebe

(Initial paragraph establishing this dossier in the mid-1980’s) Phoebe locations have included the Bird Sanctuary near Culver, Indiana, along streams around Lafayette, and at Reineman Sanctuary in Pennsylvania. Usually nests have been near water (streams). The nest, built with much mud, rests on a small shelf against a wall under an overhang (e.g. on cliff, bridge or against building). They catch insects with normal flycatching foraging behavior, sallying from perches into openings. Song “fee-bee” or “fee-beehee” (last 2 syllables sounding like a hiccup), with equal accent on the 2 syllables.

21OC89. A phoebe foraged from low perches in forest, West DuPage Woods Forest Preserve (perches no more than 8 feet up).

8MR92. A phoebe called near Hartz Lake in Indiana.

6-7AP96. Phoebes are passing through in woodlands, despite the late spring: 2 together at Elsen’s Hill on a slope overlooking the West Branch of the DuPage River on the 6th, one at Fabyan Park, Kane County, on the 7th.

16OC96. Phoebe singing high in tree at Willowbrook.

1AP99. First phoebe of the year, Willowbrook.

26MR00. A phoebe foraged high in trees near the river at West DuPage Woods, flycatching a good 30 feet up.

12AP00. A migrant in the savanna at Willowbrook.

Phoebe fledglings

Phoebe fledglings

27AU00. Migrants were common today in the Natural Area at Illinois Beach State Park.

3AP02. Willowbrook. Soil blackened by the prairie burn proved attractive to the early migrant eastern phoebes, which took advantage of sun-warmed activity by insects to collect food in the prairie.

21MR04. Willowbrook. Two phoebes in the prairie.

3NO04. Willowbrook. A phoebe still present on the preserve.

MY05. Willowbrook. For the first time, nesting was confirmed on the preserve for eastern phoebes. The flycatchers built their nest in the beams beneath the bridge over Glen Crest Creek, and 4 large nestlings still were present on May 31. (They fledged by mid-June).

13AP09. Phoebes at least in migration commonly produce a loud sharp call note, “tsewp!”

5OC10. Mayslake. Singing: white-crowned sparrow, phoebe, cardinal, song sparrow.

Phoebe incubating a nest on the former friary building at Mayslake Forest Preserve. Phoebes have taken advantage of bridges and other human structures to provide foundations for their nests of mud and vegetation.

Phoebe incubating a nest on the former friary building at Mayslake Forest Preserve. Phoebes have taken advantage of bridges and other human structures to provide foundations for their nests of mud and vegetation.

6AP11. Mayslake. Phoebe calling continuously from the tip of a tree close to where they nested last year at the now removed friary. Trying to connect with mate before searching for a new spot? (The previous 2 years they had nested on the friary building. Two years ago they had 2 broods, produced only a cowbird each time).

Mourning Dove Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

This week’s species dossier features a bird that is familiar and common. Over the course of my developing this dossier (established in the mid-1980’s) there seems to have been a change, with mourning doves wintering this far north with increasing frequency.

Dove, Mourning

Mourning dove

Mourning dove

Mourning doves usually live in open areas with some trees. In winter, they sometimes roost in thick evergreen plantations. They feed on the ground, picking up seeds. Nesting begins early in spring (March), with adults’ walking around, picking up sticks the first sign. Usually the first nest is in the branches of a conifer; subsequent nests may be in deciduous trees. The nest is a flimsy, loose platform of sticks. Two eggs almost always complete the clutch. Both adults incubate; early morning is a common switching time. The call is a mournful “cooweeoo, coo, coo-coo” (“bachelor song,” after literature). They produce a loud whistling of wings in flight. Generally they are not seen in northeast Illinois in winter, though occasional adults stick it out around feeders in Culver, Indiana. (Some were present all winter of 1998-9 at Willowbrook). There is a distinctive pumping of the head while walking. Mourning doves were very common in Texas, in brushlands, mountains and desert.

Mourning dove fledglings. This species lays 2 eggs per clutch.

Mourning dove fledglings. This species lays 2 eggs per clutch.

Late MY90, Hartz Lake. A mourning dove singing his bachelor song low in a tree flew off in a startle as a female sharp-shin landed in the same tree. The dove stayed within tree canopies as it flew.

27JA97. Morning. Snow fairly deep. A red-tailed hawk flew over the College of DuPage parking lot with something in its talons, pursued by half a dozen crows. The hawk perched on a flat-topped, wooden light pole and began plucking prey while crows sporadically left nearby perches and swooped at it. After 10-15 minutes it flew away, and I checked the feathers, which were scattered in singles and small clumps over a 20×30 foot area: mourning dove. Crow calls resembled owl mobbing, but smaller number of birds and less sustained.

MODO DE 3b

11MR99. First “bachelor calls” of the season at Willowbrook.

31OC01. At least 20 mourning doves, more than I have seen together in months in northeast Illinois, at a savanna area in the Nelson Lake property, Kane Co.

MODO DE 1b

18FE05. First bachelor calls of the season, Winfield Mounds.

Mourning dove incubating its nest

Mourning dove incubating its nest

30MR09. Mayslake. A pair of mourning doves has a nest in a spruce in front of the mansion. (This nest later was abandoned, possibly because of the heavy human traffic that was passing close by).

Northern Flicker Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

The flicker was a favorite bird of my childhood; it is so unlike other woodpeckers. That’s not to say that I can offer a lengthy dissertation about them from my own experience, hence the moderate length of my dossier on them.

Flicker, Northern

Male northern flicker

Male northern flicker

This is a woodpecker of savanna and open forest. Most migrate south in winter, passing through DuPage County in large waves. They nest in tree cavities (I have seen them excavating near Lafayette, Indiana, and at Willowbrook and Meacham Grove Forest Preserves in Illinois). Nests may be near the ground or higher in trees (6 feet up at Meacham, in a 7-foot-tall stump in a clearing; 20 feet up in a large black willow at Willowbrook). Flickers frequently forage on the ground, sometimes around ant nests. They also may feed on tree trunks in usual woodpecker fashion. Their flight is strong and direct; the white rump patch is distinctive. Vocalizations are diverse: “Flicka-flicka-flicka;” “E-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e,” rising in volume and perhaps a little in pitch, gradually, then dropping again the last couple of notes (staccato short e’s). A “whoop-whoop-whoop” display flight sound, made by wings or voice. Alarm: flew up from ground with whooping wingbeats, and emitted a couple of loud “kleel” sounds.

27MY86. One flicker chased another quietly from perch to perch in part of a willow canopy at Willowbrook. Chasing not too vigorous, and without vocalizations. Part of courtship?

The stiff tail feathers demonstrate this is a woodpecker. It is a little too intuitive to us that females like this one lack the male’s “mustache” marks.

The stiff tail feathers demonstrate this is a woodpecker. It is a little too intuitive to us that females like this one lack the male’s “mustache” marks.

30MR87. First of year observed.

15SE87. Several in Willowbrook Back 40. Also, 2 on 25SE, 1 on 30SE, and on 19OC.

13FE88. First flicker of the year near Culver, along S.R. 110.

17MR88. First arrival at Willowbrook.

16AP88. A flicker at the Morton Arboretum displaced a red-bellied woodpecker which landed on a major branch of the same tree the larger flicker was in. It chased and displaced the red-bellied twice, and uttered a faint “flicka-flicka-flicka” series, then the red-bellied flew off.

27SE88. Still present at Willowbrook. Also seen 3OC, 6OC, and one on 11OC.

17AP89. Lots of flickers in Willowbrook’s Back 40.

17JE89. A broad-winged hawk called repeatedly, in the north end of Maple Grove. Jays, flickers and grackles were highly agitated, flickers the most continuously vocal with “keels” every 2 seconds (2 birds).

11FE90. Flicker near Hartz Lake, IN.

7OC99. Last flicker of season at Willowbrook.

21NO99. Flicker perched at edge of Fermilab along Kirk Road.

18DE99. Very late flicker at Fermilab.

17JA00. Even later flicker at Greene Valley Forest Preserve. This individual looked very dark.

29-31AU01. Flickers fairly common at Algonquin Park, Ontario. Feeding on ground, usually in groups of 2-3.

Flickers consume many ants, like other woodpeckers, but unlike them often feed on the ground.

Flickers consume many ants, like other woodpeckers, but unlike them often feed on the ground.

2005-7, Greene Valley and Tri-County. Flickers overwintering in open areas.

20AP09. Flicker drumming in W part of Mayslake savanna. Drumming relatively light but very fast.

As the dossier reveals, it took me a while to figure out that flickers winter here more regularly than I had thought. They especially like prairies and other really open areas in that season.

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