First Snow

by Carl Strang

Our first winter storm of the season was worthy of the name, with 24 hours of occasionally heavy snowfall and strong winds. Even after some of the first snow melted in contact with the ground, St. James Farm Forest Preserve ended up with 3-6 inches on the ground. On Sunday I took an extended walk through the northern, forested portion of the preserve.

I wasn’t alone. Many hikers, skiers and snowshoers took advantage of the fresh snow.

I wasn’t alone. Many hikers, skiers and snowshoers took advantage of the fresh snow.

The wet snow stuck to the vegetation.

The wet snow stuck to the vegetation.

Herbaceous plants bowed under the weight.

Herbaceous plants bowed under the weight.

The smaller birds were challenged to find food through this obstruction. The temperature was cold enough to freeze shallow ponds.

This pond is hidden in the northwest corner of the woods.

This pond is hidden in the northwest corner of the woods.

This was my first opportunity to get an overview of mammal activity across the preserve. The absence of cottontail tracks perhaps was the biggest surprise. The more open southern part of the preserve, which I did not check, is more suited to them.

I saw only one set of opossum tracks, but would not expect much activity from them under the conditions.

I saw only one set of opossum tracks, but would not expect much activity from them under the conditions.

White-footed mice are abundant in the forest.

White-footed mice are abundant in the forest.

Coyote tracks showed a thorough coverage of the area overnight.

This footprint was made soon after the main snowfall ended. Ice crystals formed within it afterward.

This footprint was made soon after the main snowfall ended. Ice crystals formed within it afterward.

A pair of coyotes hunted together for a time.

A pair of coyotes hunted together for a time.

Though the disruption of the rut makes any pattern temporary, I was interested in assessing deer activity as well.

A few individuals crossed Winfield Road between St. James Farm and Blackwell Forest Preserves.

A few individuals crossed Winfield Road between St. James Farm and Blackwell Forest Preserves.

Half a dozen deer moved together at one point. The main activity was in the western portion of the woods, with almost all movement trending east-west. Only a couple deer, moving north-south, left tracks in the eastern portion. All of this is subject to change when things settle into the winter pattern over the next month.

 

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Great Horned Owl Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

Today’s species dossier is one of my largest. Great horned owls simply attract my attention and interest more than most other animals, and so I have accumulated more notes on them. Great horned owls haven’t been as easy to follow in the years since West Nile virus came into our area. Formerly the crows were reliable blabbermouths as to where the owls were. If our local crows develop resistance to the disease, those days will return.

Owl, Great Horned

Great horned owl

My earliest memory of young great horned owls was in a forest near Purdue, after they had branched one spring [branching is the term for owlets leaving the nest; it is different from fledging, because they reportedly climb down to the ground, walk to another tree, and climb up it]. I know this species primarily from observations in DuPage County, IL, where it is the common large owl, occurring in forests, even small ones. A pair nested annually in the Willowbrook riparian strip for many years, staying as year-round residents. They nested in large willows, 20-30 feet up, first in a nest on branches, then after a storm dislodged the nest, on a provided platform until that tree fell. Incubation begins January or February. The non-incubating male bird usually perches nearby in the daytime, flying away apparently to draw off people or mobbing crows. Owlets (usually 2) branch in May as trees are leafing out, can fly between trees by late May. Young have a distinctive begging call, a rising squeaky-scraping or -grating loud “scaip!” Young disperse usually by the end of October. Before then, they fly all over their parents’ territory, usually staying fairly close together. Branched young mostly sit still, observing all that goes on around them. November brings frequent late afternoon and evening territorial calls: the female’s call is a higher-pitched “WHO-whowhowho-whowhowho-who.” The male’s call has fewer syllables and a lower pitch.  Deep, booming voice. Willowbrook’s territorial birds had a running, never-ending conflict with the caged birds. I also heard calls during childhood campouts on the Tippecanoe River, Indiana, in summer, and later in the woods near the Boiling Springs, Pennsylvania, house in spring.

Pellets and food remains in late winter 1986 at Willowbrook were heavy in rabbit fur and bones in February, meadow voles in March. There were feathers of a gull in May. They covered a territory that included Willowbrook, adjacent residential neighborhoods, and much of the College of DuPage campus, for a total of perhaps 100 acres.

In the Basin of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park in Texas, they were calling around 5:30am in late July. We saw others there on the road in early evening in the upper desert. They were a bit paler than Midwestern birds.

Some contents of owl pellets at Mayslake, 2009. Prey species are meadow voles, white-footed mice, and a short-tailed shrew.

12FE87. Lots of recently molted breast feathers in Willowbrook Back 40.

8AP87. Photos of branching young owls.

Great horned owl, soon after leaving the nest.

29AP87. Crow remains found under nest area.

5MY87. The pair’s own nestlings now branching, in a willow 50m from nest tree.

6MY87. Remains of a consumed pigeon.

7MY87. The young are in another willow, closer to the nest tree, the one used most by last year’s young when branching. The third (foster, added by Willowbrook staff) youngster is on another branch of the same tree.

8MY87. Another tree change.

1JE87. The young are flying.

5OC87. Adult male beginning to hoot, in afternoon, Willowbrook Back 40.

9JA88. McDowell. Owl flushed from pine grove at south end of north field.

16JA88. McDowell. A great horned owl flew to tree on the west bank of the river, just north of where trees thin to a thread of willows, and where a housing development comes down to the river. There’s a top-blown tree nearby, also several large oaks. Then crows began raising a ruckus nearby in another direction, as though pestering a great horned owl. From that direction a red-tailed hawk soared, but they paid it no heed. It circled an adjacent riparian strip, but when the owl finally broke and flew with a flock of 10 crows in pursuit, the hawk fell in between, and also began to chase the owl. Once it got above the owl and swooped at it, brushing the owl’s back with its feet, but about then the crows caught up and chased both raptors down toward where I had seen the first owl perched, now out of my sight.

30MR88. Willowbrook. Fresh pellet with remains of 2 meadow voles.

25AP88. Both great horned owls off the nest, though in nearby trees.

17MY88. I hadn’t seen great horned owls of Willowbrook Back 40, or heard harassment by crows, in some days. Today I saw 2, upstream of their nest. Crows didn’t harass them for long or in numbers (2-3), apparently too occupied with their own nesting activity.

18JE88. Harassment of owls by crows gradually has increased this month at Willowbrook. Today I observed heavy harassment of a great horned owl by a large number of crows at McDowell Grove F.P. Owls branch at the same time crows are starting to nest, and becoming too busy to harass owls.

22FE89. Owl on a nest at Willowbrook (started incubating within the past 10 days).

26AP89. For the first day since February, there is no adult owl in the nest tree at Willowbrook (have been brooding several days, then a few days of adult perched beside nest with a youngster visible. 2 young. A fox squirrel climbed the nest tree. When it was just below the nest, the adult female flew from a nearby willow, and landed on the nest. The squirrel turned around and began to climb down as she flew in, but was not panicked.

31AU89. Jays vigorously “jay”-ing at an owl well hidden among leaves in a willow top. Chipmunks chucking nearby, below.

30NO89. Great horned owl flying, viewed from behind. Wingbeat of remarkably little amplitude, compensated by its more rapid rate. A fluttering sort of appearance. Wings kept straight. (A behavioral quieting of flight?)

14DE89. Willowbrook nature trail. The owl caught a mouse, according to tracks. Slight blood drops in snow. Many steps trampled snow just beyond the mouse burrow. Then the owl walked, either having swallowed mouse or transferred it to bill. Tracks: landed on mouse tunnel, then walked 5m. Noticeable straddle, up to 1 inch. Track 4 inches long, 3.5 wide, right angle toe pointing to outside distinctive for species. 8 inches center to center for length of step between tracks.

Sketch of great horned owl tracks.

3JA90. The Willowbrook owl pair perching near nest platform.

29JA95. Following a tip, I found a great horned owl on a nest at Maple Grove F.P. Stick nest was built last year by Cooper’s Hawks, according to informant. Nest solidly based in a main crotch 15-20 feet up. Owl had head and ear-tufts up, very noticeable but only from the front. Nest tree right beside a regularly used trail, but not a main trail, less than 200 yards from Maple Ave. and less than 100 yd. from the private school on the east border of the preserve. The owl reportedly has been on the nest less than a week.

18FE99. At Willowbrook, I found this year’s great horned owl nest (they probably have used this site before; not easy to find) in the top of a dead tree trunk, with most of branches gone, a large hollow with little in the way of a roof. Only part of the owl’s head is visible, and only from certain angles. A single fuzzy feather tuft was the give-away. Once while I watched, the bird appeared to stand and turn or shift eggs by moving feet, stepping from one to the other. The owls had been advertising consistently in the area around this tree in the early winter. Crows mobbing nearby earlier in the day (presumably after the non-incubating bird nearby) drew my attention to this area. Only one other candidate tree is nearby.

A sketch I made after finding the nest on February 18.

11MR99. The great horned owl was standing in the Willowbrook nest in the morning.

15MR99. A young bird was seen on the afternoon of the 12th. Today at least 2 young are visible. They were being fed between 3 and 3:30pm.

18MR99. The 2 young owls frequently are standing in the sun in the nest.

12AP99. The Willowbrook great horned young have branched.

A pair of branched young.

16AP99. One of the owl young somehow crossed the rain-swollen Glen Crest Creek to perch between it and the Nature Trail. Flew?

4MY99. At mid-day, a flock of 8 crows pursuing an adult great horned owl over much of Willowbrook Preserve.

27MY99. Both Willowbrook owl young still alive.

11AU99. Only one of the Willowbrook owl young remains.

18AU99. The young owl calling at mid-morning.

8MR00. A neighbor near the north edge of the Willowbrook preserve reported that the pair of great horned owls have been calling in his yard nightly since late January. He gave us permission to look for a nest, and we found it, in the top of a large blue spruce, built on an old crow or squirrel nest. 20 minutes were required to find a small hole through which to confirm the bird’s presence. The tree, perhaps 40 feet tall, is close to a dead‑end side street, in between his house and garage (the 2 buildings less than 20 feet apart), with no other tall trees right there though several others were in the yard. The bird appeared still to be incubating, occasionally turning eggs. We did not see the non‑incubating owl, but numerous potential roosting sites are nearby.

30MR00. We checked the nest again. After a few minutes the brooding bird flew away (sunny, warm afternoon). We could see one young bird clearly; there may have been more. Development seems behind last year at this date by at least a week. Still all white down, as far as we could see.

14AP00. In central Kane County, in a bur oak woodlot of perhaps 10 acres, a great horned owl nest. The nest is an appropriated crow or hawk nest in the top of a large oak. At least one young bird still is inside. The presence of the owls was made clear when the adult male flew past us, pursued by crows. He was small, appearing no larger than the crows. Later I found the nest when walking through the woods. The female flew a short distance, and a few crows called, but she settled in against the trunk of an oak, well camouflaged, and they left her alone.

17JL00. No sounds of great horned owl adults or young at Willowbrook in the evening.

2001: No signs of nest or young around Willowbrook this year, though in the spring an adult seemed to be decoying crows.

Great horned owl tracks. Owl tracks are distinctive in having one of the toes protruding out to the side at an odd angle.

14SE01. An owl called several times in the early dusk at Herrick Lake, south of the former youth campground. I see that this is my earliest record of territorial behavior, by about 3 weeks.

3NO01. Saw an owl, probably a male, at Herrick Lake F.P. in the forest behind a house, north of the big trail loop and south of the former youth group camp. That was in the morning. In the late afternoon, heard one hooting along the Fox River somewhere around Red Oak NC.

27SE02. While walking after a run at Herrick Lake, heard both members of the pair duetting strongly for at least 5 minutes (same area as previous 2 entries).

13FE07. At mid-day in the middle of a winter storm with heavy blowing snow, a great horned owl at Fullersburg holding a recently caught gray squirrel.

3AU08. Great horneds called for a long period, early morning, in my neighborhood. This continued into the dawn hour and overlapped with a cardinal’s singing, past 5 a.m.

21JA09. Mayslake. An elm branch, apparently broken from tree by storm, with bark being consumed by cottontails. Near there, one of the rabbits caught and consumed on the spot last night by a great horned owl (impressions of wing and tail feathers in the snow). Head, feet, a couple bones, and fur all that remain.

29JA09. Mayslake. I found where a great horned owl had walked on the frozen stream surface, heading S out of the woods, taking off before reaching the bridge. The tracks led back to a feeding site, with much cottontail fur and a bone, but no rabbit tracks. Continuing downstream 20 yards I found another area against the bank with fur and blood, and a couple great horned owl footprints again from last night, but again no rabbit tracks. On downstream another 30 yards I found yet a third such site, but again no rabbit tracks. Here there was no feeding, mainly just the impression of the rabbit in the snow. As the owl had walked a few steps before that impression, it must have had the rabbit in its beak. The owl had come from the N or NW. I searched all around but did not find a clear kill site. All of this was under trees with moderately thick brush that makes it seem unlikely the owl would carry prey in there from outside. The shift of location twice would seem to reflect a sense of vulnerability. I wonder if the owl would have removed the head and feet at the actual kill site. The body impression where it first landed on the stream ice was bloody.

Here is one of the stops made by the great horned owl described in the January 29 entry. There is an oval depression where the rabbit’s body was placed.

14FE09. Fullersburg. This year the great horned owls are nesting in last year’s Coopers hawk nest, just west of the Amphitheater. That nest has been available both the past two years, but the owls have chosen to use other hawk nests close to 31st Street in all of the previous 4 years but 1. In that year there were reports of a nest well south of the preserve, but I could not find one on the preserve.

19FE09 Mayslake. I found the great horned owl nest in a hollow willow near the west boundary of the preserve close to May’s Lake. It is not high up, and exposed thanks to the brush clearing, but facing away from the lake may limit its discovery by fishermen.

Great horned owl incubating nest in tree cavity, Mayslake, February 2009.

6MR09. Mayslake. Great horned owl is standing in the nest cavity, apparently brooding.

13MR09. Mayslake. The great horned owl nest tree snapped off at the point of the nest cavity, presumably in the wind storm 3 nights ago (gusts reached 45mph). A dead owlet at the base of the tree, none others nor adult seen, no sign of hurt adult but nest apparently abandoned (cold enough today that an adult would be brooding). There has been enough time that scavengers could have removed other young.

Dead nestling beneath storm-broken nest tree.

10DE10. Neighborhood. I heard a great horned owl calling early this morning.

27JA11. Mayslake. Great horned owl incubating on last year’s red-tailed hawk nest. It was not there yesterday.

Great horned owl incubating nest, Mayslake, January 2011.

10MR11. Mayslake. The owls have abandoned the nest. No sign of disturbance or dead nestling beneath, best guess is the eggs didn’t hatch, either infertile or perhaps the female was forced to abandon during the fierce blizzard at the beginning of February.

18MR11. Mayslake. At a bright mid-day, the great horned owl pair duetted for more than 15 minutes, the male in the west end and the female in the east end of the area 9 hilltop pines.

29MR11. Mayslake. A single hoot from GHO in pines, mid-day, the first I’ve heard since the 20th.  (In September I heard the pair duetting at Mayslake, so they remain at the preserve.)

Short-tailed Shrew

by Carl Strang

A few days ago I saw my first two short-tailed shrews at Mayslake Forest Preserve. Both were dead.

short-tailed shrew b

This one was in the middle of the trail. The other was in a mowed area, a few feet out from the edge of a prairie. These almost certainly were killed by coyotes. They appear to have been left as calling cards in the same way that coyotes deliberately place their scats in the centers of trails. Other coyotes coming along are sure to find them and know the area already is claimed.

I knew that short-tailed shrews were on the preserve, compliments of a great horned owl.

Owl pellet 1b

These skulls all were in a single owl pellet deposited in the center of the preserve last winter. The upper left one belonged to a short-tailed shrew. So, why would the owl eat these shrews, while the coyote leaves them after killing them? After all, if the coyote wants to use a small mammal as a marker, there are many more voles and white-footed mice, so we might expect the coyote to use them as markers, too.

Here I have no inquiry I can do myself. I must rely on what others have found. It turns out that short-tailed shrews are toxic. They have salivary poisons that help them subdue the voles that often are their prey, but some poisons are found all over their bodies. Owls, with their relatively poor taste and smell, gulp down any they kill (great horned owls also eat skunks, by the way). Coyotes are less inclined to do so. They pounce and kill a small mammal moving through the tall grass, then find it’s a shrew. Being resourceful while not wanting to eat something so vile tasting, they use it as a marker. At least, that is what I think is happening here. Another possibility is that the coyote deliberately kills the shrew with the intention of using it for communicating with other coyotes, incidentally taking out a competing predator.

Owl Pellet

by Carl Strang

 

Recently I picked up a fresh owl pellet at Mayslake. I say, “owl,” though I suppose it could have come from a red-tailed hawk. The size, shape and location of this spit-out ball of fur and bones were much more consistent with the resident great horned owls, and I am confident that was the predator. I have written before about these owls as predators of cottontails, but this pellet allowed me to add three more species to the prey list.

 

owl-pellet-1b

 

Upper left is the skull and both halves of the lower jaw from a short-tailed shrew. This small mammal has toxins in its body, but clearly they didn’t deter the owl. Upper right are two skulls from white-tailed mice. I did use the magnifying glass to be sure, but a deer mouse at Mayslake would be something of a surprise. The remaining four skulls came from meadow voles. In this case I double checked against the unlikely possibility of prairie vole.

 

owl-pellet-2b

 

All seven small mammals would have been consumed within a reasonably short period of time. Each was just a single swallow for a bird this size, but together they provided a sufficient meal for an evening’s hunt. The pellet was in the middle of a brushy woodland, but that was not where all the hunting was done. Though white-footed mice and short-tailed shrews often occur in woodlands, the several meadow voles testify to a more open, meadow or prairie habitat. White-footed mice and short-tailed shrews also frequent such places. The pellet was in the center of the preserve, and I feel safe in my belief that these small mammals all were caught within Mayslake’s boundaries.

Tricky Tracks

by Carl Strang

 

OK, it’s quiz time. In fairness I should begin by saying this is not a straightforward quiz, but rather I will present you with some examples of marks in the snow that I have encountered in recent days that are not clear and easy to identify. I won’t even guarantee that familiarity with the tracking ID primers (find under Methods category in sidebar to left) I posted a few days ago will be any help. All photos are from Mayslake Forest Preserve.

 

Here’s the first. I will show you the answer below, but please take at least a moment to study the image first.

 

leaf-track-2b

 

Now here’s the second. Again, the answer will be revealed below.

 

puzzle-track-1b

 

In the meantime, I want to share one that had me going for several minutes. I found this trail near the chapel. A small animal had come out into the open from the trees, then looped back.

 

puzzle-mouse-2b

 

The tracks were really peculiar, as though the critter were carrying a stick in its mouth that impressed the snow regularly.

 

puzzle-mouse-3b

 

I finally concluded that these were the tracks of a white-footed mouse. The “stick” mark was made by its tail. For some reason that I still cannot figure out, the mouse was hopping sideways, so that its tail went into the snow off to the side of the animal’s direction of travel.

 

puzzle-mouse-4b

 

OK, here’s the answer to the first puzzler:

 

leaf-track-1b

 

The lesson from this is that not all marks are made by animals. The leaf had been blown across the snow by the wind. For the second, I provide a photo of the same footprint taken at a slight angle rather than straight down.

 

puzzle-track-2b

 

This is a dog track. Dogs often put the main part of their weight in their middle two toes, sometimes to the extent that the outer toes don’t register very well. When the toenail mark merges with the toe, this can result in a footprint that at first glance is close to a deer track.

 

I hope this was fun. I’ll provide other puzzlers from time to time.

First Snow

by Carl Strang

 

December 1 brought the first covering snow of the season, an event I anticipated because it would provide my first opportunity to get a broad brush picture of mammal activity on Mayslake Forest Preserve. I learned a few things, but mainly I was blown away by the beauty.

 

trinity-lake-sun-snow-b

 

This was a sticky snow that coated the branches of the trees and all the tall herbaceous stems in the meadow. Woodland trails became intimate tunnels.

 

snow-tunnel-1b

 

The snow was sticky and wet because the temperature was not much below freezing. Mays Lake was largely open.

 

mays-lake-snow-2b

 

A single deer had moved through a large part of the preserve early on December 1, ultimately heading into the area where I saw a single buck in late October. I wonder if it will prove to be the same animal.

 

mayslake-deer-tracks-snow-b

 

On the night of December 1-2 a coyote covered almost the entire preserve, taking advantage of the open trails and human footprints to conserve its energy.

 

coyote-in-shoe-track-b

 

In several places I saw tracks of long-tailed Peromyscus mice, almost certainly white-footed mice, here crossing an open area on the mansion grounds among fallen weeping willow leaves.

 

peromyscus-tracks-1b

 

Tracking is an art that has not been sufficiently exploited in scientific inquiry. Beauty of landscapes may not be a scientific topic, but it has relevance to the inquiry experience. These will be topics for future posts.

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