New Sites

by Carl Strang

I enjoy going back to places I have visited before as I survey the singing insects of the Chicago region. Some are beautiful, some have the possibility of harboring species I haven’t found there yet. I am finding, however, that the greatest jumps in progress come from visiting new places. Today I wish to mention some of the ones I checked for the first time this year.

Stoutsburg Savanna Nature Preserve

The Stoutsburg Savanna is a state nature preserve in northern Jasper County, Indiana. I realized that I had done nearly all my Jasper County survey work in the Jasper-Pulaski Fish and Wildlife Area, and I needed to look elsewhere. Stoutsburg’s beauty was a pleasant surprise, and I made some nice observations there.

Mottled sand grasshopper, Stoutsburg Savanna

Another new Jasper County site was the combined NIPSCO Savanna and Aukiki Wetlands. Though much of the latter, sadly, has been taken over by reed canary grass and other invasive plants, part of the area remains good quality.

The prairie portion of the site had handsome grasshoppers.

An Aukiki broad-winged bush katydid

I was glad for the opportunity to get a series of photos of this female broad-winged bush katydid.

Another site I had been wanting to see was Wintergreen Woods Nature Preserve, a LaPorte County (Indiana) Conservation Trust property. This was another pleasant place to visit.

Wintergreen Woods provided me with a county record for the clipped-wing grasshopper, a crepitating species.

The best observation at a new site came from the Ruth Kern Nature Preserve, an Acres Land Trust property in Fulton County, Indiana.

An interesting looking katydid peeked at me from a grass leaf.

It proved to be a marsh conehead, the first I have seen outside the Great Marsh of the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore and Indiana Dunes State Park.

I released the female after taking a series of documenting photos.

The Ruth Kern preserve’s forested trails are pleasant to walk, looping down to the Tippecanoe River.

I look forward to new discoveries in future years at sites I still haven’t explored. It is good to see the work done by governmental and private agencies to protect some of the best wild places.

Short-winged Toothpick Grasshopper

by Carl Strang

The most fruitful recent singing insects search was at the Kankakee Sands preserve in Kankakee County, which has become one of my favorites for species that affiliate with sand-soil habitats. The June 28 visit yielded 3 county records, two of which were of familiar species, Roesel’s katydid and green-winged cicada.

Grasshoppers were building up their diversity at the site. Sulfur-winged grasshoppers still were going, and the season’s first mottled sand grasshopper also flashed his wings.

This was by far the earliest I have found this sand-soil specialist.

This was by far the earliest I have found this sand-soil specialist.

Then in the prairie beyond the savanna I started to hear the zuzz-zuzz-zuzz of stridulating grasshoppers. I had a hard time getting a look at who it might be. Eventually I saw a possible candidate.

This grasshopper has a somewhat slanted face, and color markings reminiscent of stridulating grasshoppers in genus Orphulella.

This grasshopper has a somewhat slanted face, and color markings reminiscent of stridulating grasshoppers in genus Orphulella.

Study of the photos, however, led to an identification as the meadow purple-striped grasshopper, Hesperotettix viridis, in the non-singing spur-throated grasshopper group. As I waded through the grasses I flushed out a couple really odd grasshoppers that begged to be photographed.

The blade-like antennas, subtle striping pattern, and especially the gangly skinniness of the critter were distinctive.

The blade-like antennas, subtle striping pattern, and especially the gangly skinniness of the critter were distinctive.

They reminded me of high school basketball players whose growth spurts have given them impressive height, but whose strength and coordination have some catching up to do. Though I saw and photographed only the minute-winged females, my identification and study convinced me that these were the stridulators. The short-winged toothpick grasshopper is well named, seeming to be constructed of toothpicks. It is a member of the slant-faced stridulating subfamily, and is described as being a frequent singer. The species, also known by the more mundane name of bunchgrass grasshopper (Pseudopomala brachyptera), now is removed from my hypothetical list for my survey region.

Illinois’ Kankakee Sands

by Carl Strang

In the Chicago region when someone mentions the Kankakee Sands, usually they are referring to the Nature Conservancy project in Newton County, Indiana. There is, however, a nature preserve in southeastern Kankakee County, Illinois, also known as “Kankakee Sands,” which also is worth knowing about.

The preserve has very high quality oak savanna and prairie ecosystems.

The preserve has very high quality oak savanna and prairie ecosystems.

I paid my first visit to this site on Friday, and left with a good dozen singing insect county records.

Most species were sand-soil singers I had encountered before, but this was my first sprinkled grasshopper.

Most species were sand-soil singers I had encountered before, but this was my first sprinkled grasshopper.

He was buried in a grass clump, offering no chance of a good photo. Fortunately he was open to climbing onto my finger for a portrait. The all-black pronotum sides are unique.

The most common orthopterans were tinkling ground crickets and straight-lanced meadow katydids, unsurprising on this sand soil.

One of the many male straight-lanceds from Friday.

One of the many male straight-lanceds from Friday.

I was pleased also to find that my new friend the handsome grasshopper is common there.

Handsome grasshopper, male.

Handsome grasshopper, male.

Female handsome grasshoppers were a bit bigger and green rather than brown.

Female handsome grasshoppers were a bit bigger and green rather than brown.

Both mottled sand grasshoppers and Boll’s grasshoppers also were there, the former often punctuating the scenery with their bright yellow hind wings in flight.

Boll’s grasshopper also has yellow hind wings. These are concealed when both species are at rest.

Boll’s grasshopper also has yellow hind wings. These are concealed when both species are at rest.

There also were plenty of bush katydids.

Most were curve-tailed bush katydids.

Most were curve-tailed bush katydids.

One, slightly smaller, proved to be a male fork-tailed bush katydid.

One, slightly smaller, proved to be a male fork-tailed bush katydid.

Kankakee Sands are worth a visit on either side of the state line.

 

Recent Photos

by Carl Strang

Time to bring out a backlog of photos from the first half of August. First, a couple bumble bees from my last day on the job at Mayslake Forest Preserve.

This Bombus auricomus was huge, practically dwarfing the carpenter bees working nearby. She must have been a new queen, stocking up for her long winter wait.

This Bombus auricomus was huge, practically dwarfing the carpenter bees working nearby. She must have been a new queen, stocking up for her long winter wait.

Nearby, this yellow bumble bee Bombus fervidus also worked the wild bergamot.

Nearby, this yellow bumble bee Bombus fervidus also worked the wild bergamot.

The remaining photos are from a few days’ bouncing around in singing insect surveys.

This oblong-winged katydid peeked out through a hole in the vegetation in the late dusk at Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie.

This oblong-winged katydid peeked out through a hole in the vegetation in the late dusk at Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie.

This mottled sand grasshopper at Kankakee Sands was my first for Newton County, Indiana.

This mottled sand grasshopper at Kankakee Sands was my first for Newton County, Indiana.

Female Carolina ground crickets are distinctive with their short ovipositors. This one posed at Subat Forest Preserve, Kendall County.

Female Carolina ground crickets are distinctive with their short ovipositors. This one posed at Subat Forest Preserve, Kendall County.

Return to Illinois Beach

by Carl Strang

Recent success in finding new species of sand-dwelling grasshoppers brought me back to Illinois Beach State Park in hope of continuing the run. On the beach I confirmed the presence of seaside grasshoppers, but was startled at the color contrast between them and the members of their species at Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

Here is one of the Illinois Beach State Park hoppers.

Here is one of the Illinois Beach State Park hoppers.

And here is one from Indiana Dunes. Same species, different substrate, a nice study in natural selection.

And here is one from Indiana Dunes. Same species, different substrate, a nice study in natural selection.

Behind the foredune is a flat in which I found three species of singing grasshoppers, all in the band-winged grasshopper subfamily. The pattern continued of a larger species, a smaller one, with a couple Carolina grasshoppers thrown in for good measure.

The larger grasshopper was the by now familiar mottled sand grasshopper. These, like the seaside grasshoppers, were browner than their conspecifics in Indiana.

The larger grasshopper was the by now familiar mottled sand grasshopper. These, like the seaside grasshoppers, were browner than their conspecifics in Indiana.

The small band-winged grasshopper at first made me think of the longhorn band-winged grasshopper.

The head protrudes above the pronotum, the size is the same, and the antennae look long.

The head protrudes above the pronotum, the size is the same, and the antennae look long.

However, in place of the bright red patch at the base of the hind wing, here it is transparent. The hind tibia pattern also is different. Both areas are hidden in the resting insect, and so not subject to selection pressure by predators.

This was a new species for me, the Kiowa rangeland grasshopper.

This was a new species for me, the Kiowa rangeland grasshopper.

A little farther back from the shore, where the first trees appear, other insects may be found.

This is Dawson’s grasshopper, not a singing species (as you might guess from the dinky wings).

This is Dawson’s grasshopper, not a singing species (as you might guess from the dinky wings).

So far the meadow tree crickets I have found at Illinois Beach all have been four-spotteds. This one, too, as evidenced by the shapes of spots on the basal antenna segments.

So far the meadow tree crickets I have found at Illinois Beach all have been four-spotteds. This one, too, as evidenced by the shapes of spots on the basal antenna segments.

Finally, in the savanna zone, the dominant singing grasshopper is Boll’s grasshopper.

Boll’s is in the same genus, Spharagemon, as the mottled sand grasshopper.

Boll’s is in the same genus, Spharagemon, as the mottled sand grasshopper.

Like the mottled sand grasshopper, Boll’s grasshopper has bright yellow in the hind wings.

Like the mottled sand grasshopper, Boll’s grasshopper has bright yellow in the hind wings.

 

The easiest way to tell the two apart is to look at the angle of the back top edge of the pronotum (thorax shield). In Boll’s, here, the angle is more than 90 degrees. In the collared sand grasshopper it is acute.

The easiest way to tell the two apart is to look at the angle of the back top edge of the pronotum (thorax shield). In Boll’s, here, the angle is more than 90 degrees. In the mottled sand grasshopper it is acute.

A final treat from that portion of my exploration was a big, beautiful female bird grasshopper laying eggs in the sand of the trail.

The non-singing grasshoppers of genus Schistocerca can be difficult to tell apart. I decided this one was S. alutacea, the leather-colored bird grasshopper.

The non-singing grasshoppers of genus Schistocerca can be difficult to tell apart. I decided this one was S. alutacea, the leather-colored bird grasshopper.

Return to the National Lakeshore

by Carl Strang

A couple weeks ago I went back to the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, as usual seeking to add to the regional inventory of singing insects. I spent most of my time in the West Beach area.

Behind the beach is a beautiful sand prairie with plenty of blazing stars and showy goldenrods.

Behind the beach is a beautiful sand prairie with plenty of blazing stars and showy goldenrods.

The prairie hosted the same three species of band-winged grasshoppers as at the Memorial Forest in Marshall County, but their relative numbers were different. Carolina grasshoppers were present in small numbers, as at the Memorial Forest, but the other two species were reversed. The dominant one was the longhorn band-winged grasshopper.

They were colored a little differently at this site, but had the small size, bright red hind wings, and protruding head characteristic of the species.

They were colored a little differently at this site, but had the small size, bright red hind wings, and protruding head characteristic of the species.

The larger, yellow-winged species, the mottled sand grasshopper, was present in much smaller numbers.

Its colors were perhaps a little more smudged than at the Memorial Forest.

Its colors were perhaps a little more smudged than at the Memorial Forest.

Down on the beach beyond the vegetation, as is typical of the Lake Michigan shore in the Chicago region, the seaside grasshopper was common.

The camouflage of this species is truly impressive.

The camouflage of this species is truly impressive.

A final stop was the marsh where I have found rare meadow katydids in the past. I thought I heard a couple dusky-faced meadow katydids, but was unable to confirm them visually. I did find a grasshopper that, if my identification is correct, is a relatively uncommon one, living in marshes in a limited portion of northern Indiana, southern Michigan and northwestern Ohio.

Paroxya hoosieri, variously known as the Hoosier grasshopper or the Indiana swamp grasshopper, does not belong to either of the singing grasshopper subfamilies.

Paroxya hoosieri, variously known as the Hoosier grasshopper or the Indiana swamp grasshopper, does not belong to either of the singing grasshopper subfamilies.

Memorial Forest Clearing

by Carl Strang

The Memorial Forest is a public site, essentially an undeveloped county park, in my home county of Marshall, in Indiana. As I have spent much of my time in that county over the years, my list of its singing insects is nearly as complete as that for DuPage. I had never looked at the Memorial Forest, however. I went there recently. The forest itself, though of good quality, had nothing new to add, but there is a cleared power line right-of-way through the forest which produced 4 county records, including a species I had not encountered before.

What made the clearing unusual was its sand soil.

What made the clearing unusual was its sand soil.

The nearly pure sand hosted oddities including velvet ants and a tiger beetle much larger than most species of my acquaintance. Almost right away I found my new friend, the woodland meadow katydid, and after a while ran across a species that may prove to be a frequent associate, at least in this region, as Lisa Rainsong has suggested.

A male straight-lanced meadow katydid.

A male straight-lanced meadow katydid.

There were large numbers of band-winged grasshoppers (the subfamily of grasshoppers which have wing-rattling flight displays, and thus qualify as singing insects). These ultimately sorted out to three species. In addition to the ubiquitous, and large, Carolina grasshopper, there were a medium sized and a small species.

The medium sized one was the mottled sand grasshopper, which I mentioned in a recent post on Jasper County.

The medium sized one was the mottled sand grasshopper, which I mentioned in a recent post on Jasper County.

Mottled sand grasshoppers were the most abundant singing insects in the clearing, their yellow hind wings flashing all around me as I walked. Then I noticed smaller bursts of bright red, and they led me to a grasshopper which up to that moment had been on my hypothetical list for the region.

You can get a sense of the red colored wings, and the small size of this insect, in comparison to my thumbnail. As usual, I released it unharmed.

You can get a sense of the red colored wings, and the small size of this insect, in comparison to my thumbnail. As usual, I released it unharmed.

The head and pronotum are beautifully patterned.

The head and pronotum are beautifully patterned.

This is the longhorn band-winged grasshopper, Psinidia fenestralis.

This is the longhorn band-winged grasshopper, Psinidia fenestralis.

The unusually wide black zone of the hind wing, the long, flattened antennae, and the banded yellow and black tibias, are additional features of this species. Old records placed it in the dune areas around the edge of Lake Michigan, so this well-inland site is unusual.

 

More J-P Singers

by Carl Strang

The woodland meadow katydids were the highlight of last week’s exploration of Jasper-Pulaski wildlife area in Indiana, as I described in the last post. It was a productive day, and I came out with 16 new county records for singing insects in the two counties. For example, I have not had a lot of success in the past with finding straight-lanced meadow katydids, but turned them up in both counties on Wednesday.

The females of this Conocephalus species have ovipositors longer than their bodies.

The females of this Conocephalus species have ovipositors longer than their bodies.

Males have cerci with relatively long straight ends beyond the spurs.

Males have cerci with relatively long straight ends beyond the spurs.

Finding singing grasshoppers requires a different methodology from those used for other singing insects. They sing so seldom that they need to be searched out visually. This approach resulted in two species at J-P.

The mottled sand grasshopper is amazingly camouflaged. I found it by flushing it into flight.

The mottled sand grasshopper is amazingly camouflaged. I found it by flushing it into flight.

As in most of our members of the band-winged grasshopper subfamily, the mottled sand grasshopper has strikingly colored hind wings.

As in most of our members of the band-winged grasshopper subfamily, the mottled sand grasshopper has strikingly colored hind wings.

The other singing grasshopper subfamily is the slant-faced stridulator group.

Short-winged green grasshoppers are common at J-P.

Short-winged green grasshoppers are common at J-P.

The males usually are green on top and brown on the sides, the larger females more completely green.

The males usually are green on top and brown on the sides, the larger females more completely green.

 

A final post from this area will focus on a variety of grasshoppers from non-singing subfamilies.

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