Yellow-rumped Warbler Dossier

by Carl Strang

Today’s species dossier selection focuses on the yellow-rumped warbler, the species in its family that winters the farthest north, with a few sometimes staying through the winter in northern Illinois. Mainly we see them in migration, however, as they nest in the North Woods.

Warbler, Yellow-rumped

Yellow-rumped warbler

Yellow-rumped warbler

This is a very abundant warbler, observed around Culver and Lafayette in Indiana, DuPage County, Illinois, and Cumberland and Perry Counties, Pennsylvania. Usually they travel in flocks, foraging from the low understory to the canopy top. Many stay late in fall, and some appear early in spring. They retain the yellow rump patch (an obvious “follow-me” signal) year-’round. Call of fall birds “tseeet,” slight slur down in pitch early in call, then up at end, again slightly.

21AP87. Has appeared at McKee Marsh, Blackwell Forest Preserve.

26AP87. Song “tsew, tsew, tsew, tli-tli-tli-tli” (short I’s). In late morning at North Blackwell, these are sitting on perches and looking, as palm warblers did, but traveling farther between perches, working higher (mostly mid tree canopy) and not hover gleaning so much as flycatching.

29AP87. Some have songs composed entirely of the “tli” syllables, others place “tsew” syllables in the middle, others have more “tsew’s” than “tli’s.” Any combination of those two syllables seems possible, 8-15 syllables total in a song.

1MY87. Still a predominantly sit-and-wait foraging style.

4OC87. First fall migrants observed at Maple Grove.

12OC87. A yellow-rumped warbler foraged on the ground, hopping, probing, and peering under the leaves of the plants. It moved slowly, less than 1 foot per minute, turning all around.

13OC87. I observed 2 in Willowbrook’s Back 40, and on the 16th, several in the old field there.

17AP88. A couple at Blackwell Forest Preserve.

29AP88. One observed foraging in trees, spending 1-5 seconds per perch scanning, and moving 3-several feet between perches. It pursued prey once, and also tore apart a cottonwood flower. Then it sally-foraged a while. Later, it switched to reaching and probing in the flowers, moving shorter distances (mostly 1 inch-1 foot). The song was relatively weak for a warbler, accelerating through its 2-3 second duration.

7MY88. Indian Trails, Culver. One flycatching.

8OC88. Hidden Lake Forest Preserve. Abundant in woods, and in fields.

11OC88. Observed in Willowbrook Back 40.

18OC88. Observed at Hartz Lake, foraging with or at least near chickadees and golden-crowned kinglets.

17AP89. First of year seen, Willowbrook Back 40. Next mentioned 30AP, McDowell.

9MY89. One at Willowbrook, flycatching low beside stream.

21OC89. Lots of them in West DuPage Woods Forest Preserve. Foraging mainly by flycatching and hover-gleaning. Air cool, 50F or less, sunny, breezy.

Male breeding colors are much brighter, but I have yet to photograph one.

Male breeding colors are much brighter, but I have yet to photograph one.

17AP90. First of year seen, Willowbrook Back 40.

23AP90. One foraging in silver poplars at Willowbrook, probing etc. in canopies, with song: “we-see’-we-see -we-see -we-see -we-see” very fast, with slight emphasis on 2nd syllable and 20-30 seconds between songs. Afternoon.

19AP99. First of season noted at Willowbrook. Last spring migrant there 13MY.

30SE99. First yellow-rumped warblers of the fall, many at Willowbrook, 2 eating poison ivy berries. Also seen eating them on 5OC, 12OC.

20AP00. First spring migrants at Willowbrook. (I saw my first of the year 18AP while running near Warrenville).

22AP00. East Woods Trail, Morton Arboretum. Several yellow-rumps feeding high in forest canopy. One observed in crown of a sugar maple in flower. The bird was mainly sitting still, reaching into flower clusters for insects. They are singing the weak sounding song that alternates between two notes, beginning weakly, crescendo and decrescendo into a trailing, weak ending. Also calling: a harsh, “pick” sound, dull and flat in tonal quality but a sharply pronounced, sparrow-like note.

7AP01. First yellow-rumps of the season at Greene Valley Forest Preserve, feeding in trees in chickadee style, with much searching of twigs and bark, and a flush-and-pursuit seen.

30SE01. Many yellow-rumped warblers along the Fox River and on Island Park, Batavia. Spread out all over, some hover-gleaning, some flycatching, others getting poison ivy berries.

27DE01: Yellow-rumped warbler at Willowbrook, foraging at the edge of the open stream, seen to catch a small worm prey.

19DE03. A yellow-rumped warbler at Willowbrook feeding on poison ivy berries and calling, the first seen there in weeks.

28SE10. Mayslake. Some yellow-rumps eating cedar berries.

26OC10. Mayslake. In recent days I have found that yellow-rumped warblers can produce the common warbler call-note (high pitched, briefer) in addition to their lower species specific note.

10DE10. Mayslake. Yellow-rumped warbler eating cedar berries near the mansion.

Yellow-rumped warbler eating a red cedar berry

Yellow-rumped warbler eating a red cedar berry

25AP11. Mayslake. A yellow-rump singing a patterned song repeatedly, very similar to Nashville warbler song but ending just different enough to distinguish.

29AP11. Mayslake. Another distinctive yellow-rump song, this one ending like the one earlier in the week but beginning with a rising sequence of notes as in a scale.

Palm Warbler Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

Spring emphatically is here. Seasonal milestones are being passed earlier than usual this year. Migrant birds have been coming in, so far mainly the ones that winter in the southern U.S. Migrants that wintered in the tropics are not expected to appear much before they usually do, but among the first will be the palm warbler. Therefore it’s appropriate to conclude this winter’s series of species dossiers with that songbird.

Warbler, Palm

Palm warbler

This small warbler is a frequently observed migrant, both spring and fall, wherever I have lived in Indiana, Pennsylvania, and northeast Illinois. Usually they travel in small groups (2-6). Commonly they feed on the ground, but also forage in tree canopies. They are readily recognized by their distinctive tail-wagging behavior.

26AP87. North Blackwell Forest Preserve. The song can be rendered “witch-witch-witch-witch-witch-chyer-chyer-chyer-…chee.” Very rapid and chattering. An individual observed foraging alone 3-15 feet up in saplings with leaves beginning to open. It spent most of the time perched, turning its head to look every direction, staying at a given perch 3-10 seconds. Prey were obtained mostly through hover-gleaning, with sallies mostly of 2-5 feet out from watch perches. It sang every 10-20 seconds. It also probed into leaf clusters beside its perch once in a while, but more with a drinking motion.

29AP88. Pratts Wayne Forest Preserve. A palm warbler was flycatching in a leafless tree. It also searched, with 1-4-inch hops at 1-3-second intervals, in brush near the ground. Its song was a series of “jerv-jerv-jerv” notes, slightly juicy or buzzy, 4-6 quick syllables.

30AP89. McDowell Grove Forest Preserve. Some palm warblers were performing mid-air sallies (perches achieved at 5-10 second intervals between flights, and the birds did not return after making a grab but continued to a branch straight ahead, after flights of 7-15 feet). Others were foraging on the ground, hopping on paved or graveled areas. One sang a loud song: “Der-see’, der-see’, …” fast, the first syllable barely there, much emphasis on second syllable, ~10 syllables per song, many seconds between songs.

8MY89. Last bird of migration noted.

1OC89. Hidden Lake Forest Preserve. Palm warblers were in woods at a field edge, with white-throated sparrows.

25AP99. Palm warblers were at the Morton Arboretum in an area with pine warblers and chipping sparrows.

3MY99. A palm warbler was foraging 10-15 feet up in box elder at Willowbrook, the first of the year observed there.

5MY99. McDowell Forest Preserve, afternoon. There was little bird activity, generally, except for lots of palm warblers (and yellow-rumped warblers) feeding.

15MY99. A late bird seen at Red Oak Nature Center.

1MY00. A flock of palm warblers fed on the ground in the center of the cleared prairie at Willowbrook. Some also moved into scattered trees in the prairie area.

24SE00. A couple palm warblers were at the Sparrow Hedge, Fermilab.

20OC01. Blackwell, McKee Marsh. A palm warbler gave call notes similar to those of a yellow-rump.

12OC02. Several palm warblers were at Fermilab in old field areas.

28AP08. Fullersburg. A palm warbler was giving a call note similar to the distinctive one of the yellow-rump, though possibly higher in pitch.

Red-bellied Woodpecker Dossier

by Carl Strang

I established my vertebrate species dossiers in the 1980’s as an antidote to relying too heavily on the scientific literature and the stories of others for my natural history knowledge. I wrote everything I could remember about each species from personal experience, which generally was embarrassingly little. Then I began to add notes as I made new observations to beef out the files. Each subsequent entry begins with my date code: the day of the month, two-letter month code, and year. Today’s example still is nothing to brag about, but on the other hand woodpeckers can be shy and resistant to casual observation.

The lack of red on the front of the head indicates that this bird is a female.

Woodpecker, Red-bellied

Frequently seen in Indiana, Pennsylvania and Illinois. Stays in forested areas most of the year. Frequently goes into towns to visit feeders in winter. I found a nest at Meacham Grove Forest Preserve in the large hollow branch of a live tree. They search for food on tree trunks and large branches. Their voice is similar to that of the red-headed woodpecker. Harsh vocal quality, difficult to render, “yooch yerch,” (short oo’s), sometimes the latter syllable repeated several more times. Very quick to call when a person comes into its vicinity in winter, more so even than the blue jay.

2AP88. Near Hartz Lake, Indiana. Call between chasing intervals, apparently expelling a rival: “rook-tik.” Haven’t noted that vocalization before.

31MR99. An excavation started by one of the red-bellied woodpeckers at Willowbrook on the 29th now is a full-sized hole and goes into the tree an undetermined amount. Near the creek.

14JA00. Red-bellied woodpecker drumming repeatedly.

22MY00. Red-headed woodpecker’s trill call is flatter in tone, not rising or falling like red-bellied’s.

A nestling, close to fledgling, is anticipating its next meal.

5JL00. Willowbrook. Many robins, adult and first‑year, on the preserve today. A young one, and also a red‑bellied woodpecker, sally‑foraging for insects, possibly flying ants, from the top of a tall dead tree near the stream. (One passing insect was observed for a few seconds before the robin flew out and caught it).

26FE01. McDowell Grove. A male red-bellied woodpecker spent over half an hour excavating a cavity previously begun (it could stick its entire head in the hole). The tree was a dead stem, 20 feet tall, at the edge of the creek, the hole was facing south, away from the creek, and was surrounded by other trees. The hole was 6-8 inches from the squared, broken-off top of the stem, and the stem there was 6-8 inches in diameter. The bird paused to call frequently.

16-17MR06. On the 16th, a red-bellied woodpecker was drumming at Fullersburg. Drumming very rapid. The next day, a hairy woodpecker drumming at Tri-County State Park was drumming, similar in length but even more rapid.

Red-bellied woodpecker nest at Mayslake Forest Preserve.

27MR06. Downy woodpecker drumming is so rapid that individual strikes cannot be followed. Hairy woodpecker drumming very rapid, individual strikes can be distinguished. Red-bellied rapid but slightly less so.

9NO09. Female red-bellied eating an apple in the Mayslake mansion orchard.

American Robin Dossier

by Carl Strang

 

Today’s post is another in my series of species dossiers. It begins with the summary paragraph written when I established the dossier in late 1986 or early 1987. I have edited out some less informative entries.

 

robin-1b

 

American Robin. Familiar bird of natural and artificial savannas. Primarily a summer resident, although small numbers remain in northern IN and IL around fruit-rich areas as long as winter weather is not too severe. Waves of migrants seen each spring and fall. Nest typically on branches of broadleaf trees, or in shrubs. Nest of grasses and mud, with deep inner cup. Sometimes grasses dipped in mud before delivery to nest. Eggs deep sky-blue. Young may get out of nest a short distance a couple of days before fledging, but after early-morning departure from nest they tend to travel some distance and do not return. Young scattered, tended individually by parents, who swoop and may peck at people or mammals which approach the young. Fledglings have dark spots on breast. Worms and insects hunted on ground in summer; fruit the winter food. Mulberries eaten by both adults and young in early summer. Winter berries include buckthorn, mountain ash. Song dominates habitat in early morning and dusk. A musical series of phrases, each composed of 2-3 clear, slurred whistling notes sung from mid to high perches in trees, on aerials, etc. Alarm call “cheet’-der-der-der-der.” Occasional battles, presumably territorial, take place. Striking white spots on tips of tail feathers may be “follow-me” signals. Preyed upon by cats, on occasion. When hunting worms, run 2-20 feet over the ground, stop, then may move a short distance, lean down with side of head turned toward Earth, then possibly reach down and pull up worm with beak.

26AP80. Pennsylvania. Robins, when startled into flight across the path of an approaching car, appear to use body-twisting and turning tactics more appropriate to flight from a hawk.

14JE87. Young-of-year eating mulberries at Culver Fish Hatchery.

9SE87. Large flock in Willowbrook Back 40. One ate grapes.

16SE87. In the evening, within a half-hour before sunset, robins were migrating south over Willowbrook. They flew just above treetop level, in flocks of 3-30, occasionally perching to rest for a time in the treetops, then moving on. The birds occasionally called to one another in flight, alternately flapping in short bursts, and gliding.

29AP88. A robin on a nest at Pratts Wayne Woods Forest Preserve, 6 feet up in crotch of a 15-foot, 3″dbh fencerow box elder.

7AU88. Young robin, apparently independent but still with spots, eating black cherries in Willowbrook Back 40.

30AU88. Lots in Back 40, mostly on ground but 1 in black cherry going after fruit.

5OC88. Robins eating grapes, Back 40.

6OC88. Robins eating gray dogwood fruits, Back 40.

12OC88. Robins eating honeysuckle fruits, Back 40.

17JE89. A broad-wing calling repeatedly, in north end of Maple Grove Forest Preserve. Robins definitely disturbed, with nervous dee-dee-dee’s every 20 seconds or so.

28AU89. Robins eating gray dogwood fruit, Back 40.

21OC89. Robins eating buckthorn berries, West DuPage Woods Forest Preserve.

3JA90. A robin singing very softly at Herrick Lake Forest Preserve. Temperature ~40F, sun.

 

robin-b

 

14JA90. A large robin flock, scattered in woods on ground, moving as they do when hunting worms. Ground frozen. Saw occasional reaches to turn over a leaf, but no feeding.

7AP90. Robins in forest at Winfield Mounds Forest Preserve, throwing leaves with beaks to find food.

2JE90. Culver. A robin foraging on lawn (20 feet from nearest shrub) singing, 7:30am.

14SE90. Willowbrook, robin ate a couple small grapes, swallowing them whole.

JA99. Robins present on Willowbrook preserve all winter. Heavily fruiting asiatic bittersweet (Celastrus vine) a particular attraction.

6FE99. At Morton Arboretum, in an area thick with honeysuckle beneath a mesic forest, many robins feeding on the ground, vigorously throwing leaves aside and eating very small things too quickly to identify. I dug, found a mix of insects and fruit-like items.

9SE99. 2 robins eating buckthorn berries at Willowbrook.

13OC99. Robin occasionally singing at Willowbrook.

8FE00. Robin eating buckthorn berries at Willowbrook. They are fewer and more intermittent than last winter, 1 or 2 at most at any time.

13AP00. Willowbrook. One robin chasing another in the savanna. Could robins have nested in prairie savannas in years when fire burned off the tall plants beneath the trees? They might have fledged an early brood before the new plants got too tall for them.

16AP00. Willowbrook. A robin carrying nesting material.

1JE00. Arboretum. Along the Joy Path, a robin was perched in the lower branches of a maple, well concealed from above by leaves, sitting absolutely still and barely opening its beak at intervals to give a high-pitched note, somewhat waxwing-like but louder, better defined, that was difficult to locate.

15JE00. Arboretum. Near Parking Lot 7, when I arrived around 8am, 3 robins were giving the high‑pitched thin call repeatedly, and the forest otherwise was relatively quiet. After 10 minutes, a Cooper’s hawk started calling nearby, then flew out away from the forest edge until an eastern kingbird started to chase it. It immediately turned around and flew back the way it had come, and kept going. The robins then were quiet.

16JE00. Willowbrook. In the afternoon, a Cooper’s hawk perched near the west edge of the prairie, drawing alarm calls from a robin (the hawk‑whistle warning call) and a cardinal, and a chorus of 7 loudly mobbing jays.

5JL00. Willowbrook. Many robins, adult and first‑year, on the preserve today. A young one, and also a red‑bellied woodpecker, sally‑foraging for insects, possibly flying ants, from the top of a tall dead tree near the stream. (One passing insect was observed for a few seconds before the robin flew out and caught it).

11MR01. A robin singing loudly, Timber Ridge Forest Preserve.

28JL01. A newly on-its-own robin chased a cicada through the air, the insect giving its predator-discouraging call, but broke off the chase and flew back the way it came. The robin was never close to the cicada during the part of the chase I saw.

13MR02. First morning of robin (or any) dawn chorus at my house.

%d bloggers like this: