Some Hoosier Grasshoppers

by Carl Strang

As I mentioned in the last post, grasshoppers pose problems different from other groups of singing insects. First, most of them don’t qualify as singing insects. Second, those that sing seldom do. Surveying them therefore must be on a visual rather than a hearing basis. Finally, even the visual approach isn’t simple. There are a lot of grasshopper species, sometimes distinguished by tiny structural features. A complete series of photos may be needed to assure an identification. You need every view, above, below, from the side, being sure to get good dorsal and lateral views of the end of the abdomen. Band-winged grasshoppers need to be captured and the wings spread. Also, the color of the hind tibia often is important. All of this was the lesson from grasshopper photos I took in Jasper, Pulaski and Starke Counties, Indiana, last week.

Some grasshoppers are relatively large and spectacular. The bird grasshoppers are the largest I have found to date in the region.

This appears to be the obscure bird grasshopper, common in places at the Jasper-Pulaski wildlife area but at or near the north end of its range.

This appears to be the obscure bird grasshopper, common in places at the Jasper-Pulaski wildlife area but at or near the north end of its range.

This is a different bird grasshopper from Round Lake conservation area, my best sorting of characters pointing to the spotted or prairie bird grasshopper, Schistocerca emarginata (S. lineata in older references). Note the different colors of the head and tibia, compared to the preceding species.

This is a different bird grasshopper from Round Lake conservation area, my best sorting of characters pointing to the spotted or prairie bird grasshopper, Schistocerca emarginata (S. lineata in older references). Note the different colors of the head and tibia, compared to the preceding species.

The remaining grasshoppers I photographed apparently are all in the enormous spur-throated grasshopper group. Their identifications I think are correct, but a few more photos of certain parts of them would have helped.

The graceful grasshopper, Melanoplus gracilis, is the one of these I most likely have right. It lives in moist grassy areas.

The graceful grasshopper, Melanoplus gracilis, is the one of these I most likely have right. It lives in moist grassy areas.

This may be a post oak grasshopper, Dendrotettix quercus. I found it in a dry oak savanna. Superficially it resembles the previous, but note the different wings.

This may be a post oak grasshopper, Dendrotettix quercus. I found it in a dry oak savanna. Superficially it resembles the previous, but note the different wings.

After poring through many reference photos, I had to conclude that this was a two-striped grasshopper. If I had looked at its back, I wouldn’t have needed to go to the trouble.

After poring through many reference photos, I had to conclude that this was a two-striped grasshopper. If I had looked at its back, I wouldn’t have needed to go to the trouble.

This grasshopper, like the previous one, didn’t give me a dorsal view, but I’m pretty sure it’s another two-striped.

This grasshopper, like the previous one, didn’t give me a dorsal view, but I’m pretty sure it’s another two-striped.

Advertisements

Woodland Meadow Katydid

by Carl Strang

Sometimes the solution to a puzzle comes through a tiny clue, accidentally discovered. Why couldn’t I find woodland meadow katydids? For years I had listened for them and looked for them in habitats where they are supposed to occur. References suggested I should be able to hear their distinctive song around woodland edges, but also indicated they are more a southern species with only scattered populations as far north as the 22-county region I am surveying for singing insects.

On Wednesday I traveled to Jasper County, Indiana, and stopped at the western end of the Jasper-Pulaski state wildlife area. I put on the SongFinder, wanting to find short-winged meadow katydids to add to the Jasper County list, but almost immediately heard something odd. It sounded like a striped ground cricket, but perhaps lower in pitch.

The song was coming from the tall herbaceous vegetation around two white oak trees.

The song was coming from the tall herbaceous vegetation around two white oak trees.

I took off the headphones of the pitch-lowering device, and could no longer hear the song. As I continued to listen, I noticed that once in a while one of the quick short buzzes was preceded by a brief stuttering burst of ticks. Thanks to the stereophonic design of the SongFinder, I soon found the singer.

A male woodland meadow katydid!

A male woodland meadow katydid!

It’s the only dry-habitat meadow katydid in our area that is brown rather than green. Once I knew that I needed the SongFinder, and what to listen for, I found them in Pulaski County and, the next day, in Starke. At the Round Lake state conservation area I heard males singing, and spotted a female.

Though the ovipositor is slightly curved, the small size as well as the brown color separates this female from all the Orchelimum meadow katydids. Long-tailed meadow katydids can be brown, but have very long straight ovipositors and live in wetlands.

Though the ovipositor is slightly curved, the small size as well as the brown color separates this female from all the Orchelimum meadow katydids. Long-tailed meadow katydids can be brown, but have very long straight ovipositors and live in wetlands.

I had held out hope that this would prove to be the one Conocephalus meadow katydid that I could hear unaided, but such is not the case. That was the tiny clue I needed to solve the woodland meadow katydid puzzle.

Low Hanging Fruit

by Carl Strang

There haven’t been many new posts in this blog recently because mainly I am going after the low hanging fruit. In other words, most of my research time has been going into checking new counties and new sites, as well as return visits to sites visited earlier in the season, to build my database of singing insect species locations. Though this is productive work, most of that product consists of added locations for common species. That’s not exactly fodder for blogging. A few interesting points have come out, however.

Last week I was working in Indiana. The weather was unseasonably cool, but there was plenty of singing action. In Fulton County I heard a broad-winged bush katydid singing, which establishes that northern species down to the southern edge of the survey region. Clearly they are fewer there than farther north, however. As I drove the rural roads in temperatures that were dropping rapidly to the mid-50’s F, I started hearing a strange, unfamiliar song coming from wetter locations. It was a kind of slow, fluttering buzz, reminiscent of the protean shieldback but much louder, and the buzzes were in repeated short bursts. I pulled off at one such location, and soon realized that these were slightly musical coneheads, their songs altered by the cold, but still singing in lockstep unison. I also found that species in Pulaski County, so they are widely dispersed at least in the northwest Indiana counties.

Slightly musical conehead

Slightly musical conehead

On the way back home I explored some sites in Lake County, Indiana. The best of these was the Hoosier Prairie Nature Preserve. This is a relatively large, high quality prairie and savanna property. Broad-winged bush katydids were abundant there.

A portion of the Hoosier Prairie Nature Preserve

A portion of the Hoosier Prairie Nature Preserve

On the way to Hoosier Prairie I passed a sign with a familiar name.

Tom Sporre Wildlife Area

Tom Sporre Wildlife Area

Tom Sporre was in the Purdue wildlife undergraduate program a year ahead of me. Personable and proficient, he went on to become a prominent Indiana waterfowl biologist who died much too young. I was pleased to see a marsh and prairie set aside under his name.

Scouting Fulton and Pulaski

by Carl Strang

When I updated my regional guide to singing insects over the winter, I decided to add range maps. This was a little premature, because I barely have begun the survey work, but I also had sources in the scientific literature to augment my own observations.

Here is a page from the guide. The map shows the counties I decided to include in a region centered in northeast Illinois and northwest Indiana, but extending a little into Wisconsin and Michigan. Black dots are recent observations, open ones are from the literature, which often goes back more than 5 decades.

Here is a page from the guide. The map shows the counties I decided to include in a region centered in northeast Illinois and northwest Indiana, but extending a little into Wisconsin and Michigan. Black dots are recent observations, open ones are from the literature, which often goes back more than 5 decades.

Another winter project then became to identify sites in all the counties where I could focus my survey efforts, mainly state parks and other public properties. The plan is to start visiting them this year, noting species I can identify through sight and hearing without collecting. If collecting seems necessary, I can seek permits in a future year, but there will be plenty to do without going to all that trouble yet.

Over the weekend I visited sites in Fulton and Pulaski Counties, Indiana, which are the empty counties in the snowy tree cricket map at the eastern end of the bottom row. In Fulton County I had decided to focus on the area around Lake Manitou at Rochester. This proved to be a good choice, as there appear to be representative habitats of nearly every type.

The Judy Burton state nature preserve, for instance, has extensive meadows undergoing prairie restoration, and woodlands, all with maintained trails.

The Judy Burton state nature preserve, for instance, has extensive meadows undergoing prairie restoration, and woodlands, all with maintained trails.

It is early in the season, but I was able to add county records for the green-striped grasshopper and spring trig.

Pulaski County boasts the Tippecanoe River State Park and Winamac Fish and Wildlife Area. The state park is almost entirely forested, so I didn’t spend much time there (early singing insect action is in the meadows and prairies), but it will be great later in the year. The fish and wildlife area has a more diverse array of habitats.

This weedy field had many displaying green-striped grasshoppers and a few spring field crickets, both of which I now can add to the maps.

This weedy field had many displaying green-striped grasshoppers and a few spring field crickets, both of which I now can add to the maps.

This grasshopper, photographed in the above field, appears to be a species of Melanoplus, and so not a singing insect.

This grasshopper, photographed in the above field, appears to be a species of Melanoplus, and so not a singing insect.

As time permits, I will be returning to these areas later in the season. I am looking forward to making the acquaintance of many places in the region’s other counties, as well.

%d bloggers like this: