Gray Squirrel Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

For several winters, now, I have been sharing my notes on various species of our vertebrate wildlife. The main idea is to step away from the literature and other second-hand sources, and document what I know about each species from my own observations. At last I have reached the end of the list of dossiers which contain enough information to post here. There may be more in the future, as I add to the limited notes presently in unshared dossiers, but this will be the last for a while. I hope the main point has been clear: to remind you, as well as myself, to pay attention and learn from experience rather than rely on the sometimes limited or misleading second-hand reports (I shouldn’t need to point out that from your perspective, this dossier is itself a second-hand report!)

Squirrel, Gray

Gray squirrel

Gray squirrel

This species is more typical of larger forests and cities. Its relative the fox squirrel is the savanna and small woodlot species, though both can occur together (this one is not found around Culver, Indiana, however). Many notes from the fox squirrel dossier also apply to this one.

27JL77. Gray squirrels fed on unripe red oak acorns at Reineman Sanctuary, Perry County, Pennsylvania. The next day, one was eating Nyssa (black gum) seeds (discarding the fruit).

29JE86. One gray squirrel foraging on the ground in an old pine plantation at Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve, DuPage County, IL. It moved slowly (diagonal walk), nose to the ground, sometimes pushing the nose beneath the litter and walking several inches with the face thus submerged. Stopped and ate 3 small objects. Later investigation of the site revealed small oval shells with tough skins, possibly coccoons, flattened ovals viewed from side with a circular cross section, with one end neatly removed and empty inside.

20OC86. Squirrels in dense brushy old field of Willowbrook Back 40. Sounds, when alarmed, like 2-3 steps or jumps, the last louder, then quiet. Is squirrel getting to bigger shrub or a tree, jumping onto trunk then freezing and watching?

23FE87. Much renewal of nut-digging (removal) past few days (and continued next 10 days or so).

28FE87. Wayne Grove Forest Preserve. Gray squirrel stuffing itself with American elm buds in top of 8″dbh tree. Later another, also in a 5″dbh American elm. Much recent excavation of buried nuts. A third individual ate a few black cherry buds.

6MR87. Squirrel high in a black willow, cutting twigs 4-12 inches long and carrying them one at a time to the top of a major 3-branch crotch high in the tree, where it was stuffing or sewing them into a mass of them.

7AP87. A gray squirrel on the ground responded to chipmunk’s chip-trill at my approach, jumping onto low branch and looking alert.

28SE87. Lots of them on the ground in Willowbrook old field. Old and young of year, both.

23JA88. McDowell Forest Preserve. Gray squirrel dug up shallowly buried hickory nut, cutting a 1.5′-tall elm to get face in close for leverage in digging. Carried nut into tree, spent about 4-5 minutes consuming it, then ate snow off top of branch it was sitting on (about 1′ worth, a powdery, thin 0.5″ wide), went down tree and continued. Paused and looked back at me.

20MR88. A gray squirrel at Meacham Grove gathering dry leaves from ground, stuffing them into its mouth with its paws then taking them into cavity nest up in old white oak. Also gathering from among the few leaves still attached to the tree itself.

10AP88. Touched a squirrel at Hidden Lake Forest Preserve (tips of his tail hairs as he “hid” on the other side of a tree trunk barely too big for him to look around).

17AU88. A chase between squirrels, apparently not play. Gray squirrel pursuing a larger fox squirrel, which jumped out of trees twice from 15-20 feet up, landing hard, to escape (in the second jump it leaped out, seemed to sail a bit, and its fall was partly broken by a small shrub). The fox squirrel uttered a harsh call, short and sharp, like part of a mobbing call, on 2 occasions. There was an un-play-like seriousness about the pursuer.

27MY89. Young gray squirrels very curious, approach when you hold still (yesterday in the park at the Newberry Library in Chicago, today in Maple Grove Forest Preserve). They have a buzzing call, precursor of the adult’s bark.

22JE89. 2 gray squirrels eating red (not quite ripe) mulberries at Willowbrook. The berries began to ripen the previous weeks, so many other ripe ones were available.

29AU89. Many twig ends, some more than 1 foot long, cut from a sugar maple in Back Yards exhibit by Sciurus sp. The twigs were laden with developing new seeds, but only a few of these were eaten. Happened in last 24 hours (lawn mowed yesterday). No nest visible in nearby trees, and this tree 25 feet from edge of lawn, similar distance from nearest other tree.

3SE89. Gray squirrel youngster (from spring litter) passing through yard, east to west (not a neighborhood where squirrels lived).

20MR90. Gray squirrel chased fox squirrel away from Willowbrook crow cage area, then came back (note: squirrels often enter Willowbrook cages to take food from dishes. A squirrel nest has been found in the bullwinkle in that cage).

22AP90. Winfield Mounds Forest Preserve. 2 gray squirrels eating enlarged cottonwood buds high in the tree. They ascended together, the larger almost seeming to pursue, certainly to follow, the smaller. The smaller climbed in 2-foot spurts, the larger following, beginning its move as soon as the smaller’s ended. Larger flicked tail in rippling pattern reminiscent of fish or salamander courtship. The smaller may have done so once or twice, but less forcefully. Slow and deliberate, not a rapid play chase. When they were high up, it appeared the smaller would leap to another branch to escape. Larger broke off chase, and they fed. Didn’t take every bud, examined many without taking. Later, larger followed smaller to ground, then up another tree, same way. Larger sometimes sniffed where smaller had been. Larger got ahead of smaller and turned to face it, flicking tail. Smaller turned away. Etc.

1JL90. Gray squirrel in mulberry tree, feeding on ripe berries, West DuPage Woods.

26JA92. Hidden Lake Forest Preserve. Lots of nut digging by squirrels, last 24 hours. Fresh snow, overnight low 20F.

21SE97. Gray squirrel eating gilled mushroom cap, Petoskey State Park, MI. Both gray and black individuals common. One chased by red squirrel briefly.

4MR99. At mid-day a gray squirrel emerged from a hole in a large, dead willow across from the Safari Trail/Glen Crest Creek junction at Willowbrook to drive away an approaching fox squirrel. The gray immediately returned to the hole.

27OC99. Fox and gray squirrels active. Former have been eating nuts in recent days, one this morning in a box elder eating seeds, another appearing to work on a broken down old nest. Gray squirrels on ground this morning, some in woods, at least one in base of savanna finger at Willowbrook.

28OC99. Gray squirrel with nut, fox squirrel eating box elder seeds.

17NO99. A gray squirrel (young) and a fox squirrel both eating box elder seeds at Willowbrook.

2DE99. Several gray squirrels and 1 fox squirrel foraging on ground.

9FE00. Gray squirrel using an exposed (though low) leaf nest at Willowbrook.

14FE00. Many gray and fox squirrels this winter in nests only 12‑14 inches outer diameter at Willowbrook.

4MR00. A gray and 2 fox squirrels feeding on the expanding buds of an American elm near the Joy Path of Morton Arboretum. As I left the path to approach the tree to ID it, the gray squirrel immediately left and ran to other trees. As I walked up to the trunk, the lower of the fox squirrels finally left, but the higher one remained.

15MR00. Willowbrook. A gray squirrel carrying a walnut, in vicinity of trail willow den (have seen a squirrel eating a walnut near there recently).

11JE00. In a morning’s hiking south of Langlade, WI, 1 gray squirrel seen.

21OC05. Willowbrook. Gray squirrel, tail curled over its head, giving its growling-snarling-whining call with an education raptor volunteer holding a red-tailed hawk on a glove nearby. Squirrel holding still, oriented so that its right side is toward the hawk.

25JA06. Fullersburg. 2 pairs gray squirrels chasing one another, probably courtship.

10JL06. Gray squirrel eating ripening hackberries, Fullersburg’s Willow Island.

5OC10. Mayslake. A fox squirrel chased a gray squirrel on the ground in the south savanna.

Blue Jay Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

This week’s species dossier contains my observations of the blue jay, a bird I regard as the Forest Crier, who lets everybody know what is going on.

Blue jay

Blue jay

Jay, Blue

Lives in forests and old, tree-filled residential areas. Nested in the yard at Culver (15′ up in silver maple), riparian strip at Willowbrook Forest Preserve, IL (8′ up in small tree) and Maple Grove F.P. (10′ up in hawthorn at forest edge, incubating 31MY86). Bird reluctant to move when on nest. Eats mainly insects in summer, a lot of nuts and seeds in fall and winter. Forages from ground to top of canopy. Very vocal. “Eeth! Eeth!” sharp alarm call; rising, accelerating “a-a-a-ee-ee-ee-ee” (long a’s and ee’s) begging/feeding call of young (much like crows’); “ool-ool” and “teekle-teekle” calls accompanied by peculiar bobbing of body. Captive reared birds at the Willowbrook Wildlife Center often used this latter movement in concert with vocal mimicries (whistles, telephone ringing). Low, highly musical, conversation-like vocalizations among Willowbrook’s caged birds. Wild birds mimic calls of various hawks. They travel in loosely organized flocks much of the year. Mob crows in spring. Courtship feeding observed in a treetop at Maple Grove F.P. on 10MY86. Tend to take over feeders, other birds stay away until they leave.

15JE86. As a broad-winged hawk flew past, pursued by a couple of starlings at Maple Grove, a blue jay uttered a single “eeth!” call.

Late summer 86. As a flock of ground-feeding grackles flushed at the approach of people, jays and downy woodpeckers at Meacham Grove emitted contact calls, apparently as a final check of location and status before possible flight.

11MY88. Responded to deer breaking twig loudly with “thief” call, Hartz Lake.

12MY88. Jay on nest in 20′ box elder, nest 15′ up, riparian strip of Willowbrook Back 40.

5JE88. In the middle of Geneva I stood under a tree in which a pair of cardinals suddenly began to alarm-call rapidly. They were close to me, but not paying attention to me. The calls were directed at a blue jay which the cardinals chased from the isolated street-side tree to a clump of trees and brush, and continued the alarm calling and chasing until the jay left. The jay resisted some, was not driven off easily.

29MY88. Hartz Lake, in woods. A chipmunk saw me move my arm laterally, gave 3 chips increasing in speed, and ran. Immediately 2 jays feeding on the ground flew up. They were 40-50 feet away.

13JL88. Blue jay young still following, begging from parent, though they look full grown.

18OC88. Cactus Camp, IN. A blue jay yelling at me with repeated, energetic “jay jay” (“thief thief,” “eeth eeth”) calls.

24DE88. Cactus Camp. Jays doing a lot of “jay” mobbing; information about animals moving away from me?

4JE89. Elsen’s Hill Forest Preserve, IL. Teekettle call used as a warning to an intruding jay, given as the intruder landed. After several repetitions the intruder hadn’t left, and so the calling bird flew into the same oak and began to displace it (flights of 10-20 feet). It “jay”ed once, then resumed “teakettles,” continuing displacements and increasing their frequency, until the intruder left.

11JE89. Cactus Camp. Pair of jays mobbed me with loud “jay” calls.

17JE89. A broad-wing called repeatedly, in north end of Maple Grove. Jays, flickers and grackles highly agitated, flickers the most continuously vocal with “keels” every 2 seconds (2 birds). Grackles gacking frequently, too. A great crested flycatcher near, also vocal, but not clearly in response to the hawk; same with chickadees. Robins definitely disturbed, with nervous dee-dee-dee’s every 20 seconds or so. Jays in bursts, with several birds mobbing.

18AU89. Willowbrook marsh. Kestrel and jays. Latter making a strange, harsh, parrot-like call. Chasing, mobbing. Kestrel seemed to stoop at the jays a couple times, but the jays kept mobbing until the kestrel left.

31AU89. Jays vigorously “jay”-ing at a great horned owl well hidden among leaves in a willow top. Chipmunks chucking nearby, below.

3SE89. Jays maintain contacts with a-a calls (long a’s) and a variety of squeaky notes.

14OC89. Cactus Camp. Jays “jay”ing at a hawk, landing on branches nearby. Hawk appeared to be a red-tail, but was down inside forest. Jays stayed with it as it flew.

Late MY90. Cactus Camp. Jays foraged in accumulated oak leaves in the open among short brush by perching on tree or sapling branches, searching the ground, and making short flights out.

 

Yellow-rumped Warbler Dossier

by Carl Strang

Today’s species dossier selection focuses on the yellow-rumped warbler, the species in its family that winters the farthest north, with a few sometimes staying through the winter in northern Illinois. Mainly we see them in migration, however, as they nest in the North Woods.

Warbler, Yellow-rumped

Yellow-rumped warbler

Yellow-rumped warbler

This is a very abundant warbler, observed around Culver and Lafayette in Indiana, DuPage County, Illinois, and Cumberland and Perry Counties, Pennsylvania. Usually they travel in flocks, foraging from the low understory to the canopy top. Many stay late in fall, and some appear early in spring. They retain the yellow rump patch (an obvious “follow-me” signal) year-’round. Call of fall birds “tseeet,” slight slur down in pitch early in call, then up at end, again slightly.

21AP87. Has appeared at McKee Marsh, Blackwell Forest Preserve.

26AP87. Song “tsew, tsew, tsew, tli-tli-tli-tli” (short I’s). In late morning at North Blackwell, these are sitting on perches and looking, as palm warblers did, but traveling farther between perches, working higher (mostly mid tree canopy) and not hover gleaning so much as flycatching.

29AP87. Some have songs composed entirely of the “tli” syllables, others place “tsew” syllables in the middle, others have more “tsew’s” than “tli’s.” Any combination of those two syllables seems possible, 8-15 syllables total in a song.

1MY87. Still a predominantly sit-and-wait foraging style.

4OC87. First fall migrants observed at Maple Grove.

12OC87. A yellow-rumped warbler foraged on the ground, hopping, probing, and peering under the leaves of the plants. It moved slowly, less than 1 foot per minute, turning all around.

13OC87. I observed 2 in Willowbrook’s Back 40, and on the 16th, several in the old field there.

17AP88. A couple at Blackwell Forest Preserve.

29AP88. One observed foraging in trees, spending 1-5 seconds per perch scanning, and moving 3-several feet between perches. It pursued prey once, and also tore apart a cottonwood flower. Then it sally-foraged a while. Later, it switched to reaching and probing in the flowers, moving shorter distances (mostly 1 inch-1 foot). The song was relatively weak for a warbler, accelerating through its 2-3 second duration.

7MY88. Indian Trails, Culver. One flycatching.

8OC88. Hidden Lake Forest Preserve. Abundant in woods, and in fields.

11OC88. Observed in Willowbrook Back 40.

18OC88. Observed at Hartz Lake, foraging with or at least near chickadees and golden-crowned kinglets.

17AP89. First of year seen, Willowbrook Back 40. Next mentioned 30AP, McDowell.

9MY89. One at Willowbrook, flycatching low beside stream.

21OC89. Lots of them in West DuPage Woods Forest Preserve. Foraging mainly by flycatching and hover-gleaning. Air cool, 50F or less, sunny, breezy.

Male breeding colors are much brighter, but I have yet to photograph one.

Male breeding colors are much brighter, but I have yet to photograph one.

17AP90. First of year seen, Willowbrook Back 40.

23AP90. One foraging in silver poplars at Willowbrook, probing etc. in canopies, with song: “we-see’-we-see -we-see -we-see -we-see” very fast, with slight emphasis on 2nd syllable and 20-30 seconds between songs. Afternoon.

19AP99. First of season noted at Willowbrook. Last spring migrant there 13MY.

30SE99. First yellow-rumped warblers of the fall, many at Willowbrook, 2 eating poison ivy berries. Also seen eating them on 5OC, 12OC.

20AP00. First spring migrants at Willowbrook. (I saw my first of the year 18AP while running near Warrenville).

22AP00. East Woods Trail, Morton Arboretum. Several yellow-rumps feeding high in forest canopy. One observed in crown of a sugar maple in flower. The bird was mainly sitting still, reaching into flower clusters for insects. They are singing the weak sounding song that alternates between two notes, beginning weakly, crescendo and decrescendo into a trailing, weak ending. Also calling: a harsh, “pick” sound, dull and flat in tonal quality but a sharply pronounced, sparrow-like note.

7AP01. First yellow-rumps of the season at Greene Valley Forest Preserve, feeding in trees in chickadee style, with much searching of twigs and bark, and a flush-and-pursuit seen.

30SE01. Many yellow-rumped warblers along the Fox River and on Island Park, Batavia. Spread out all over, some hover-gleaning, some flycatching, others getting poison ivy berries.

27DE01: Yellow-rumped warbler at Willowbrook, foraging at the edge of the open stream, seen to catch a small worm prey.

19DE03. A yellow-rumped warbler at Willowbrook feeding on poison ivy berries and calling, the first seen there in weeks.

28SE10. Mayslake. Some yellow-rumps eating cedar berries.

26OC10. Mayslake. In recent days I have found that yellow-rumped warblers can produce the common warbler call-note (high pitched, briefer) in addition to their lower species specific note.

10DE10. Mayslake. Yellow-rumped warbler eating cedar berries near the mansion.

Yellow-rumped warbler eating a red cedar berry

Yellow-rumped warbler eating a red cedar berry

25AP11. Mayslake. A yellow-rump singing a patterned song repeatedly, very similar to Nashville warbler song but ending just different enough to distinguish.

29AP11. Mayslake. Another distinctive yellow-rump song, this one ending like the one earlier in the week but beginning with a rising sequence of notes as in a scale.

Northern Flicker Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

The flicker was a favorite bird of my childhood; it is so unlike other woodpeckers. That’s not to say that I can offer a lengthy dissertation about them from my own experience, hence the moderate length of my dossier on them.

Flicker, Northern

Male northern flicker

Male northern flicker

This is a woodpecker of savanna and open forest. Most migrate south in winter, passing through DuPage County in large waves. They nest in tree cavities (I have seen them excavating near Lafayette, Indiana, and at Willowbrook and Meacham Grove Forest Preserves in Illinois). Nests may be near the ground or higher in trees (6 feet up at Meacham, in a 7-foot-tall stump in a clearing; 20 feet up in a large black willow at Willowbrook). Flickers frequently forage on the ground, sometimes around ant nests. They also may feed on tree trunks in usual woodpecker fashion. Their flight is strong and direct; the white rump patch is distinctive. Vocalizations are diverse: “Flicka-flicka-flicka;” “E-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e,” rising in volume and perhaps a little in pitch, gradually, then dropping again the last couple of notes (staccato short e’s). A “whoop-whoop-whoop” display flight sound, made by wings or voice. Alarm: flew up from ground with whooping wingbeats, and emitted a couple of loud “kleel” sounds.

27MY86. One flicker chased another quietly from perch to perch in part of a willow canopy at Willowbrook. Chasing not too vigorous, and without vocalizations. Part of courtship?

The stiff tail feathers demonstrate this is a woodpecker. It is a little too intuitive to us that females like this one lack the male’s “mustache” marks.

The stiff tail feathers demonstrate this is a woodpecker. It is a little too intuitive to us that females like this one lack the male’s “mustache” marks.

30MR87. First of year observed.

15SE87. Several in Willowbrook Back 40. Also, 2 on 25SE, 1 on 30SE, and on 19OC.

13FE88. First flicker of the year near Culver, along S.R. 110.

17MR88. First arrival at Willowbrook.

16AP88. A flicker at the Morton Arboretum displaced a red-bellied woodpecker which landed on a major branch of the same tree the larger flicker was in. It chased and displaced the red-bellied twice, and uttered a faint “flicka-flicka-flicka” series, then the red-bellied flew off.

27SE88. Still present at Willowbrook. Also seen 3OC, 6OC, and one on 11OC.

17AP89. Lots of flickers in Willowbrook’s Back 40.

17JE89. A broad-winged hawk called repeatedly, in the north end of Maple Grove. Jays, flickers and grackles were highly agitated, flickers the most continuously vocal with “keels” every 2 seconds (2 birds).

11FE90. Flicker near Hartz Lake, IN.

7OC99. Last flicker of season at Willowbrook.

21NO99. Flicker perched at edge of Fermilab along Kirk Road.

18DE99. Very late flicker at Fermilab.

17JA00. Even later flicker at Greene Valley Forest Preserve. This individual looked very dark.

29-31AU01. Flickers fairly common at Algonquin Park, Ontario. Feeding on ground, usually in groups of 2-3.

Flickers consume many ants, like other woodpeckers, but unlike them often feed on the ground.

Flickers consume many ants, like other woodpeckers, but unlike them often feed on the ground.

2005-7, Greene Valley and Tri-County. Flickers overwintering in open areas.

20AP09. Flicker drumming in W part of Mayslake savanna. Drumming relatively light but very fast.

As the dossier reveals, it took me a while to figure out that flickers winter here more regularly than I had thought. They especially like prairies and other really open areas in that season.

Flame-shouldered Dart

by Carl Strang

Old notes, photos and memories are worth recording and keeping, as they can produce results as new information becomes available to illuminate them. Back in the 1980’s as I surveyed plant-eating insects in Maple Grove and Meacham Grove Forest Preserves, I was able to identify most of the species I encountered, but I tried to get photos of all, and kept notes and records. That research introduced me to the important component community concept. This is the idea that each kind of plant (or each group of plants that use similar chemical defenses) is consumed by a particular suite of insects and other herbivores adapted to defeating those defenses, and this is a helpful way to organize many of the species in a forest or other community. One of the component communities in the study forests was based on Smilacina racemosa, the feathery Solomon’s plume or false Solomon’s seal.

Feathery Solomon’s plume

Feathery Solomon’s plume

In one of the first posts in this blog I described that component community, and mentioned that I was unable to identify two of its members. Later I found a resource that allowed me to narrow down one of the mystery insects, a sawfly, to genus Phymatocera, either P. offensa or P. similata.

One of the Phymatocera sawflies consuming Smilacina flowers

One of the Phymatocera sawflies consuming Smilacina flowers

Recently I ran across a photo in the excellent Wagner guide to caterpillars that allowed me to identify the other unknown. It proves to be the flame-shouldered dart (Ochropleura implecta), a moth in the owlet moth family Noctuidae.

Flame-shouldered dart caterpillar on Smilacina

Flame-shouldered dart caterpillar on Smilacina

As is the case with many noctuids, however, this one has a fairly broad diet across its range, so its presence on this particular plant provides only a little information. Nevertheless, it’s always nice to solve an old mystery.

Olive-sided Flycatcher Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

This week’s species dossier is for contrast. Though I have seen olive-sided flycatchers in several spring migration seasons in recent years, I have not been able to add anything significant to the first account I made in 2000. Prior to then, I had heard one calling its “quick three beers!” at Maple Grove Forest Preserve one spring in the mid-1980’s. I have never observed them in their North Woods breeding grounds, and I have not observed them during the fall migration.

Olive-sided flycatcher

Olive-sided flycatcher

Flycatcher, Olive-sided

25MY00. Willowbrook. Olive-sided flycatcher foraging from branches high in dead trees. Its bill is enormous, and its head large, giving it a distinctive look. This one was yellow in vent area. It was distinguished by the lack of an eye-ring and wing bars, along with the narrow light-colored channel between the dark sides of its breast. It never vocalized.

And that’s it. I have seen the species again at Willowbrook, at Fullersburg, and at Mayslake, but the story always has been the same. I limit the dossier to observations I have made myself. Of course, those observations are informed by what others have discovered, in this case that the large muscular head is an adaptation for crushing the hard exoskeletons of bees, wasps and other armored insects upon which this flycatcher feeds. Such prey become more active and abundant later in the season, so this species is one of the later migrants. I have never heard one call other than that one time in the 1980’s.

Common Grackle Dossier

by Carl Strang

In anticipation of spring, this week’s choice of species dossier features a bird that winters not so far to our south, and so is one of the first to arrive in spring.

Grackle, Common

Courting group of grackles in a quiet moment.

Typically this is a colonial nester in tall trees, although I have seen low nests (e.g., at Purdue gravel pit). Birds radiate out from the colony to feed, traveling at least up to ½ mile. They feed mostly on the ground, in tall (at least 6″) grass in summer in Pennsylvania, in forests in early to mid-spring in Illinois. Latter birds feed in groups, noisily throwing leaves aside with beaks as they walked. Former ones fed more commonly as individuals.

Squeaky, rusty-hinge voice. In early May 1986, at West DuPage Woods Forest Preserve, Illinois: A large male grackle, perched on a bare branch beside the river, periodically gave his squeaky “erlik-geck” call. Each call was accompanied by elevation of the feathers of the head, neck and upper back and chest. Feather elevation began slightly before vocalization. Alarm call is a series of rapid “geck” notes.

Migrates south for winter, forming large flocks mixed with other blackbirds (especially red-winged) in fall, disappearing in November from northern Illinois and Indiana, reappearing in March. The male holds his long, wedge-shaped tail vertically in long straight flight. That tail also can be held in a V-shape.

Migrant grackle flock, foraging on Mayslake mansion lawn.

Both parents participate in feeding. Nestling grackles at Willowbrook’s hospital were unusual in their lack of aggressiveness in taking food. They would not bite food off its holder (implying regurgitation by parents into the nestling’s throat?). The inside of the mouth is dark red on older youngsters.

7MR87. First arrival of year noted at McKee Marsh, Blackwell Forest Preserve.

7MY87. Grackle caught moth it flushed from lawn, removed wings before eating.

4JE87. Broods out of nest, not strong fliers, still begging hard.

11JE87. Mother grackle fed youngster several items, apparently brought up from her crop although some she picked up nearby on the ground. After she flew off, the fledgling pecked at the ground, picking up dropped bits, and also did some close looking of its own into the grass.

14SE87. Migrants in Willowbrook Back 40, also one on 28th.

6MR88. Numbers of grackles are back.

2AP88. Grackles flying in pairs and showing much courtship activity in past week.

8AP89. Grackles mostly in pairs.

17JE89. A broad-winged hawk calling repeatedly, in north end of Maple Grove. Jays, flickers and grackles highly agitated, flickers the most continuously vocal with “keels” every 2 seconds (2 birds). Grackles gacking frequently, too.

18JE89. Grackles foraging in forest litter, Maple Grove and Meacham Grove Forest Preserves.

Grackles perched near a nesting colony.

30JE96. As I paddled my sea kayak on Lake Michigan, just north of the IL-WI border, I saw many grackles along that 2-mile stretch foraging over the surface of the water. Both genders. The birds flew pretty much straight out from shore, 100-200 yards, and then flew back and forth until they saw something on the water to pick up. Then the bird dropped down and reached for the item with its bill. There were lots of dead and dying small fish, and on at least 2 occasions these clearly were what the grackles picked up. At other times the objects appeared to be too small or the wrong shape. Sometimes a grackle dropped down and appeared to miss, or not even quite reach the surface, but it seemed that after a single try, successful or not, the bird headed straight back to shore (sometimes dropping down to the water on the return trip, though). They flew along as high as 30 feet, usually 10-15, and when seeing objects they spun on a wing and often hovered, looking surprisingly tern-like. They minimized contact with the water, though one that dropped down close to me, where I could see clearly, plunged its head into the water, and its tail tip dipped in as well. Their fluttering flight appeared clumsy and energy-gobbling when compared to the purple martins, gulls and terns also cruising those waters.

22FE99. First of year noted at Willowbrook.

12AU99. 2 grackles hunting up in trees.

2NO99. Last of season at Willowbrook.

31OC01. Flocks of red-wings and grackles remain (Nelson Marsh, Kane Co.)

4NO01. An enormous flock of red-wings and grackles along Kirk Road in eastern Kane County. The species were staying apart, on the whole, and there were mainly grackles, but there were hundreds of each. They were landing in a harvested corn field.

18MR09. Both red-wing and grackle include tail fanning and wing spreading in their displays. In the red-wing, these movements accompany the song but are expressed in a range from not at all or nearly so, to slight fanning of tail, slight tail fanning and spreading of wings, and finally much tail fanning and wing spreading.

Grackle courtship flock, displaying

1JE09. Mayslake. First grackle fledglings.

18MR11. Mayslake. Most grackles still are males, but a female often is among them from the start (when a pair forms do they leave, so males always outnumber females?).

29MR11. Mayslake. Displaying grackle group. Often there is only one female with the several males. In the past week or two I frequently have noted trios of flying grackles, one female with 2 males.

Indigo Bunting Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

In contrast to the species dossiers I have shared recently, this one has relatively little in it. Indigo buntings, though one of our common breeding birds, are gone to Central America for much of the year, and like brushy areas, so more than a casual observation study would be needed to know much about them.

Bunting, Indigo

Male indigo bunting

Frequently observed along railroad tracks (brushy/weedy) near home in Culver, in childhood. Observed in brushy areas, usually with a few high bushes. Also in forest edges and clearings.

Seems to prefer older old fields with plenty of brush, some tall. Occurs with chat, field sparrow, catbird, cardinal. Song, in Pennsylvania, Indiana and Illinois, quite variable, but generally 2 up-slurring notes and usually followed by 2 down-slurring notes, then a variable jumble of notes. Sometimes only 5-6 notes altogether. Males sing from exposed perches. In 1985, 2-3 males sang in 43-acre Willowbrook Forest Preserve. A male moves very little when singing, tilting his head up and vibrating his mouth with the song. He changes perches at 2-5-minute intervals. Alarm call alternated cardinal-like high notes with low chips.

24MY86. A male at Maple Grove Forest Preserve sang in the savannah area. A close look showed many brown feathers on his breast. A female fed in the same area, deliberately moving among oak leaves on a large branch 20 feet up.

16MY87. First of year singing at a park in Geneva.

Indigo bunting singing, Mayslake

13MY88. First of year singing, Willowbrook Back 40.

3MY99. First bunting of year at Willowbrook.

22JL99. A late indigo bunting singing at Willowbrook. Still singing 12AU.

17SE99. Last one of year noted at Willowbrook.

11JE00. Alarm note strong and forceful. Species fairly common south of Langlade, WI.

24SE00. Several female-plumaged birds in hedgelike borders of Prairie Path at West Chicago Prairie just east of Industrial Drive.

3JE06. Pair mating mid-morning, female perched on a side branch of a 12-foot-tall, 2-inch DBH tree at edge of woods. Male on her only about 1 second, mating accompanied by a forceful buzzing call. About 20 minutes later we heard the call again from them, same area.

23AU10. Indigo bunting and field sparrow heard singing today.

Great Horned Owl Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

Today’s species dossier is one of my largest. Great horned owls simply attract my attention and interest more than most other animals, and so I have accumulated more notes on them. Great horned owls haven’t been as easy to follow in the years since West Nile virus came into our area. Formerly the crows were reliable blabbermouths as to where the owls were. If our local crows develop resistance to the disease, those days will return.

Owl, Great Horned

Great horned owl

My earliest memory of young great horned owls was in a forest near Purdue, after they had branched one spring [branching is the term for owlets leaving the nest; it is different from fledging, because they reportedly climb down to the ground, walk to another tree, and climb up it]. I know this species primarily from observations in DuPage County, IL, where it is the common large owl, occurring in forests, even small ones. A pair nested annually in the Willowbrook riparian strip for many years, staying as year-round residents. They nested in large willows, 20-30 feet up, first in a nest on branches, then after a storm dislodged the nest, on a provided platform until that tree fell. Incubation begins January or February. The non-incubating male bird usually perches nearby in the daytime, flying away apparently to draw off people or mobbing crows. Owlets (usually 2) branch in May as trees are leafing out, can fly between trees by late May. Young have a distinctive begging call, a rising squeaky-scraping or -grating loud “scaip!” Young disperse usually by the end of October. Before then, they fly all over their parents’ territory, usually staying fairly close together. Branched young mostly sit still, observing all that goes on around them. November brings frequent late afternoon and evening territorial calls: the female’s call is a higher-pitched “WHO-whowhowho-whowhowho-who.” The male’s call has fewer syllables and a lower pitch.  Deep, booming voice. Willowbrook’s territorial birds had a running, never-ending conflict with the caged birds. I also heard calls during childhood campouts on the Tippecanoe River, Indiana, in summer, and later in the woods near the Boiling Springs, Pennsylvania, house in spring.

Pellets and food remains in late winter 1986 at Willowbrook were heavy in rabbit fur and bones in February, meadow voles in March. There were feathers of a gull in May. They covered a territory that included Willowbrook, adjacent residential neighborhoods, and much of the College of DuPage campus, for a total of perhaps 100 acres.

In the Basin of the Chisos Mountains, Big Bend National Park in Texas, they were calling around 5:30am in late July. We saw others there on the road in early evening in the upper desert. They were a bit paler than Midwestern birds.

Some contents of owl pellets at Mayslake, 2009. Prey species are meadow voles, white-footed mice, and a short-tailed shrew.

12FE87. Lots of recently molted breast feathers in Willowbrook Back 40.

8AP87. Photos of branching young owls.

Great horned owl, soon after leaving the nest.

29AP87. Crow remains found under nest area.

5MY87. The pair’s own nestlings now branching, in a willow 50m from nest tree.

6MY87. Remains of a consumed pigeon.

7MY87. The young are in another willow, closer to the nest tree, the one used most by last year’s young when branching. The third (foster, added by Willowbrook staff) youngster is on another branch of the same tree.

8MY87. Another tree change.

1JE87. The young are flying.

5OC87. Adult male beginning to hoot, in afternoon, Willowbrook Back 40.

9JA88. McDowell. Owl flushed from pine grove at south end of north field.

16JA88. McDowell. A great horned owl flew to tree on the west bank of the river, just north of where trees thin to a thread of willows, and where a housing development comes down to the river. There’s a top-blown tree nearby, also several large oaks. Then crows began raising a ruckus nearby in another direction, as though pestering a great horned owl. From that direction a red-tailed hawk soared, but they paid it no heed. It circled an adjacent riparian strip, but when the owl finally broke and flew with a flock of 10 crows in pursuit, the hawk fell in between, and also began to chase the owl. Once it got above the owl and swooped at it, brushing the owl’s back with its feet, but about then the crows caught up and chased both raptors down toward where I had seen the first owl perched, now out of my sight.

30MR88. Willowbrook. Fresh pellet with remains of 2 meadow voles.

25AP88. Both great horned owls off the nest, though in nearby trees.

17MY88. I hadn’t seen great horned owls of Willowbrook Back 40, or heard harassment by crows, in some days. Today I saw 2, upstream of their nest. Crows didn’t harass them for long or in numbers (2-3), apparently too occupied with their own nesting activity.

18JE88. Harassment of owls by crows gradually has increased this month at Willowbrook. Today I observed heavy harassment of a great horned owl by a large number of crows at McDowell Grove F.P. Owls branch at the same time crows are starting to nest, and becoming too busy to harass owls.

22FE89. Owl on a nest at Willowbrook (started incubating within the past 10 days).

26AP89. For the first day since February, there is no adult owl in the nest tree at Willowbrook (have been brooding several days, then a few days of adult perched beside nest with a youngster visible. 2 young. A fox squirrel climbed the nest tree. When it was just below the nest, the adult female flew from a nearby willow, and landed on the nest. The squirrel turned around and began to climb down as she flew in, but was not panicked.

31AU89. Jays vigorously “jay”-ing at an owl well hidden among leaves in a willow top. Chipmunks chucking nearby, below.

30NO89. Great horned owl flying, viewed from behind. Wingbeat of remarkably little amplitude, compensated by its more rapid rate. A fluttering sort of appearance. Wings kept straight. (A behavioral quieting of flight?)

14DE89. Willowbrook nature trail. The owl caught a mouse, according to tracks. Slight blood drops in snow. Many steps trampled snow just beyond the mouse burrow. Then the owl walked, either having swallowed mouse or transferred it to bill. Tracks: landed on mouse tunnel, then walked 5m. Noticeable straddle, up to 1 inch. Track 4 inches long, 3.5 wide, right angle toe pointing to outside distinctive for species. 8 inches center to center for length of step between tracks.

Sketch of great horned owl tracks.

3JA90. The Willowbrook owl pair perching near nest platform.

29JA95. Following a tip, I found a great horned owl on a nest at Maple Grove F.P. Stick nest was built last year by Cooper’s Hawks, according to informant. Nest solidly based in a main crotch 15-20 feet up. Owl had head and ear-tufts up, very noticeable but only from the front. Nest tree right beside a regularly used trail, but not a main trail, less than 200 yards from Maple Ave. and less than 100 yd. from the private school on the east border of the preserve. The owl reportedly has been on the nest less than a week.

18FE99. At Willowbrook, I found this year’s great horned owl nest (they probably have used this site before; not easy to find) in the top of a dead tree trunk, with most of branches gone, a large hollow with little in the way of a roof. Only part of the owl’s head is visible, and only from certain angles. A single fuzzy feather tuft was the give-away. Once while I watched, the bird appeared to stand and turn or shift eggs by moving feet, stepping from one to the other. The owls had been advertising consistently in the area around this tree in the early winter. Crows mobbing nearby earlier in the day (presumably after the non-incubating bird nearby) drew my attention to this area. Only one other candidate tree is nearby.

A sketch I made after finding the nest on February 18.

11MR99. The great horned owl was standing in the Willowbrook nest in the morning.

15MR99. A young bird was seen on the afternoon of the 12th. Today at least 2 young are visible. They were being fed between 3 and 3:30pm.

18MR99. The 2 young owls frequently are standing in the sun in the nest.

12AP99. The Willowbrook great horned young have branched.

A pair of branched young.

16AP99. One of the owl young somehow crossed the rain-swollen Glen Crest Creek to perch between it and the Nature Trail. Flew?

4MY99. At mid-day, a flock of 8 crows pursuing an adult great horned owl over much of Willowbrook Preserve.

27MY99. Both Willowbrook owl young still alive.

11AU99. Only one of the Willowbrook owl young remains.

18AU99. The young owl calling at mid-morning.

8MR00. A neighbor near the north edge of the Willowbrook preserve reported that the pair of great horned owls have been calling in his yard nightly since late January. He gave us permission to look for a nest, and we found it, in the top of a large blue spruce, built on an old crow or squirrel nest. 20 minutes were required to find a small hole through which to confirm the bird’s presence. The tree, perhaps 40 feet tall, is close to a dead‑end side street, in between his house and garage (the 2 buildings less than 20 feet apart), with no other tall trees right there though several others were in the yard. The bird appeared still to be incubating, occasionally turning eggs. We did not see the non‑incubating owl, but numerous potential roosting sites are nearby.

30MR00. We checked the nest again. After a few minutes the brooding bird flew away (sunny, warm afternoon). We could see one young bird clearly; there may have been more. Development seems behind last year at this date by at least a week. Still all white down, as far as we could see.

14AP00. In central Kane County, in a bur oak woodlot of perhaps 10 acres, a great horned owl nest. The nest is an appropriated crow or hawk nest in the top of a large oak. At least one young bird still is inside. The presence of the owls was made clear when the adult male flew past us, pursued by crows. He was small, appearing no larger than the crows. Later I found the nest when walking through the woods. The female flew a short distance, and a few crows called, but she settled in against the trunk of an oak, well camouflaged, and they left her alone.

17JL00. No sounds of great horned owl adults or young at Willowbrook in the evening.

2001: No signs of nest or young around Willowbrook this year, though in the spring an adult seemed to be decoying crows.

Great horned owl tracks. Owl tracks are distinctive in having one of the toes protruding out to the side at an odd angle.

14SE01. An owl called several times in the early dusk at Herrick Lake, south of the former youth campground. I see that this is my earliest record of territorial behavior, by about 3 weeks.

3NO01. Saw an owl, probably a male, at Herrick Lake F.P. in the forest behind a house, north of the big trail loop and south of the former youth group camp. That was in the morning. In the late afternoon, heard one hooting along the Fox River somewhere around Red Oak NC.

27SE02. While walking after a run at Herrick Lake, heard both members of the pair duetting strongly for at least 5 minutes (same area as previous 2 entries).

13FE07. At mid-day in the middle of a winter storm with heavy blowing snow, a great horned owl at Fullersburg holding a recently caught gray squirrel.

3AU08. Great horneds called for a long period, early morning, in my neighborhood. This continued into the dawn hour and overlapped with a cardinal’s singing, past 5 a.m.

21JA09. Mayslake. An elm branch, apparently broken from tree by storm, with bark being consumed by cottontails. Near there, one of the rabbits caught and consumed on the spot last night by a great horned owl (impressions of wing and tail feathers in the snow). Head, feet, a couple bones, and fur all that remain.

29JA09. Mayslake. I found where a great horned owl had walked on the frozen stream surface, heading S out of the woods, taking off before reaching the bridge. The tracks led back to a feeding site, with much cottontail fur and a bone, but no rabbit tracks. Continuing downstream 20 yards I found another area against the bank with fur and blood, and a couple great horned owl footprints again from last night, but again no rabbit tracks. On downstream another 30 yards I found yet a third such site, but again no rabbit tracks. Here there was no feeding, mainly just the impression of the rabbit in the snow. As the owl had walked a few steps before that impression, it must have had the rabbit in its beak. The owl had come from the N or NW. I searched all around but did not find a clear kill site. All of this was under trees with moderately thick brush that makes it seem unlikely the owl would carry prey in there from outside. The shift of location twice would seem to reflect a sense of vulnerability. I wonder if the owl would have removed the head and feet at the actual kill site. The body impression where it first landed on the stream ice was bloody.

Here is one of the stops made by the great horned owl described in the January 29 entry. There is an oval depression where the rabbit’s body was placed.

14FE09. Fullersburg. This year the great horned owls are nesting in last year’s Coopers hawk nest, just west of the Amphitheater. That nest has been available both the past two years, but the owls have chosen to use other hawk nests close to 31st Street in all of the previous 4 years but 1. In that year there were reports of a nest well south of the preserve, but I could not find one on the preserve.

19FE09 Mayslake. I found the great horned owl nest in a hollow willow near the west boundary of the preserve close to May’s Lake. It is not high up, and exposed thanks to the brush clearing, but facing away from the lake may limit its discovery by fishermen.

Great horned owl incubating nest in tree cavity, Mayslake, February 2009.

6MR09. Mayslake. Great horned owl is standing in the nest cavity, apparently brooding.

13MR09. Mayslake. The great horned owl nest tree snapped off at the point of the nest cavity, presumably in the wind storm 3 nights ago (gusts reached 45mph). A dead owlet at the base of the tree, none others nor adult seen, no sign of hurt adult but nest apparently abandoned (cold enough today that an adult would be brooding). There has been enough time that scavengers could have removed other young.

Dead nestling beneath storm-broken nest tree.

10DE10. Neighborhood. I heard a great horned owl calling early this morning.

27JA11. Mayslake. Great horned owl incubating on last year’s red-tailed hawk nest. It was not there yesterday.

Great horned owl incubating nest, Mayslake, January 2011.

10MR11. Mayslake. The owls have abandoned the nest. No sign of disturbance or dead nestling beneath, best guess is the eggs didn’t hatch, either infertile or perhaps the female was forced to abandon during the fierce blizzard at the beginning of February.

18MR11. Mayslake. At a bright mid-day, the great horned owl pair duetted for more than 15 minutes, the male in the west end and the female in the east end of the area 9 hilltop pines.

29MR11. Mayslake. A single hoot from GHO in pines, mid-day, the first I’ve heard since the 20th.  (In September I heard the pair duetting at Mayslake, so they remain at the preserve.)

Fox Squirrel Dossier

by Carl Strang

This week’s species dossier is one of my larger ones.

Fox Squirrel

Fox squirrels are distinguished from our other common tree squirrel, the gray squirrel, by the reddish tones in the tail and belly.

This is a squirrel of woodlands and residential areas with trees. The fox squirrel is the only large tree squirrel of the Culver, Indiana, area. They nest in tree cavities or in leaf nests; some used leaf nests all winter at Willowbrook Forest Preserve, Illinois. Nest building involves cutting of leafy branch-ends. A leaf nest in cross section is made of those leafy twigs, woven into a framework of thicker sticks, with a fresh leafy lining. Overall it has a very thick wall with small insulated cavity within.

Squirrel nests are approximately the diameter of a basketball.

Fox squirrels feed on the ground and in trees. They begin to eat acorns and hickory nuts in August when those still are green. Hickory nuts and acorns are consumed in treetops, especially early in morning and late in afternoon, resulting in a distinctive rain of fragments as hulls are gnawed away. Squirrels (gray squirrels?) also ate black gum fruits in Pennsylvania on Reineman Sanctuary in late fall. Generally they open large nuts (hickory, walnuts) neatly, prying them open on the seams.

Fox squirrel with a pair of shagbark hickory nuts.

They also bury individual acorns, nuts, black cherry pits, etc., in the fall. Distinctive burying site goes into earth at a 45 degree angle or a little shallower, producing an oval shaped bare soil excavation site about 1×2 inches (wider than tall) in soft soil, smaller in hard soil. Mushrooms also are on the fall food list near Culver. Diet in early winter emphasizes excavated nuts buried earlier.

Squirrel tracks, right, follow a winding course as the animal sniffed for a buried nut. On the left is the hole where it excavated one.

Twigs and bark, e.g. of elm, eaten occasionally in mid- and late winter. Buds, e.g. of maple, are added as those expand in spring. Developing elm seeds are heavily consumed in May in DuPage County, generally twigs are cut and seeds eaten from them. Occasionally they gnaw bones.

Fox squirrel eating buds in spring.

Fox squirrels have two breeding seasons, typically, in spring and fall, with 2-5 young per litter. Young began to appear at the Willowbrook Wildlife Center hospital in mid-March (born mid-late February) and mid-August (born late July or early August). Young normally begin to emerge from the nest in May or late September. Young play in vigorous chasing and hiding games on tree trunks and in branches, occasionally extended onto the ground. Adults sometimes play as well, also tease dogs. Leap between trees. They use suspended wires as tightropes between trees and over roads.

These could be fox or gray squirrel footprints.

Tree squirrel tracks are distinctive, the 5-toed hind footprints about 1.25 inches long, with 3 parallel middle toes close together, pointing forward, and outer toes pointing out at angles. The 4-toed front footprints show more spread and independence of toes. The traveling gait typically is a gallop, with front feet leaving ground before back feet land. The back feet are side by side, as are the front feet. Slowing down causes front feet to get closer and closer to back footprints, until one or both front footprints are in front of the back feet. Acceleration also begins with a set of footprints showing the bound gait. Squirrels sniffing slowly over the ground sometimes use the diagonal walk. Fox squirrels show considerable ingenuity and acrobatic ability in overcoming bird feeder protections.

Early spring 1986, Taft Campus of Northern Illinois University, north central IL, with snow still on ground. A fox squirrel, opportunistically foraging in a temporary meltwater stream, looked much healthier than the many gray squirrels fastidiously foraging on the wet-snow-covered hillside nearby.

24NO86. Squirrel began to go onto a branch with 2 great horned owls. The squirrel stopped, tail twitching, sat still for a while, then backed and started to go on a branch over the owls’ heads. They were watching it. Finally it turned around and ran down the tree.

12DE86. Puffer Lake, Morton Arboretum, IL. Fox or gray squirrel tracks in snow that fell yesterday afternoon, on ice among cattails at edge of lake. The tracks were made early this morning. Diagonal walk first 7 feet onto ice, then slow gallop gait.

Fox squirrel, winter.

14MR87. Fox squirrel eating cherry and elm buds at Maple Grove Forest Preserve.

30AP87. Fox squirrel feeding heavily, frenetically, on large green silver maple fruits (seeds only; dropping wings). Also on 1MY, 8:30 a.m. both days.

4MY87. Squirrel-cut elm twigs with fragments of seeds on ground.

6MY87. Early evening, a fox squirrel feeding in an elm top at Willowbrook. Mostly clipped twigs first, then stripped them of seeds, and finally dropped them. The squirrel removed more foliage in 3 minutes than a noctuid caterpillar would in its entire life.

18DE87. 4 days after an abrupt 1-foot snowfall, little but rabbit and squirrel tracks can be seen in the Willowbrook Back 40. The latter are relatively few, restricted to woods.

25MY88. A squirrel when being stealthy carries his tail behind him like the cloak on a figure in an old novel.

This one looks pregnant.

29MY88. Fox squirrel numbers at Hartz Lake (in Indiana) appear limited by hickories. The few squirrels I’ve seen to date have been in parts of woods where hickories are (may simply be a preference, if hunters are keeping numbers low).

20SE88. A fox squirrel nest came into Willowbrook from Lombard with 3 young. The nest was made of leafy elm twigs, with grasses and a work glove toward the center. Overall shape was like an urn, with branches interwoven to nearly cover the entrance. Couldn’t tell for sure whether the entrance was on top or side. Nest blown out of tree by storm.

27JL89. Fox squirrel still feeding heavily on red half-ripe mulberries at Willowbrook after purple ripe ones have been available more than 1 month.

10MR90. Warrenville Grove Forest Preserve. Fox squirrel lunges up tree when climbing, pushing with all four feet at once. Toes catch in cracks, don’t appear to slip although a slight adjustment with a foot may be made now and then before the next lunge.

24JL90. Fox squirrel still eating mulberries.

15NO90. Willowbrook. A fox squirrel eating catalpa seeds right out of the pod, and letting the wings fall.

13JA92. Fox squirrel eating box elder buds, Willowbrook.

22AP95. Midafternoon, Warrenville Grove Forest Preserve. 2 fox squirrels feeding heavily on American elm buds in a 6″dbh tree.

13OC96. 3 fox squirrels in full bark, simultaneously, in Mom and Dad’s Culver front yard. A large cat was their target. They were turned so their bodies pointed in its direction and they were focused, looking straight at the cat.

Not a hibernator, the fox squirrel remains active all winter.

19FE99. Fox squirrel eating expanding silver maple buds, Willowbrook.

4MR99. At mid-day a gray squirrel emerged from a hole in a large, dead willow at Willowbrook to drive away an approaching fox squirrel. The gray immediately returned to the hole.

20AP99. Fox squirrel feeding on buds or expanding leaves of a black cherry tree with leaves much more expanded than those of other cherries at Willowbrook.

28AP99. Willowbrook. Fox squirrel eating silver maple seeds.

13OC99. Willowbrook. Young fox squirrel out of nest. Another fox squirrel eating box elder seeds.

21OC99. Willowbrook. Several fox squirrels gathering walnuts.

Synchronized acorn-eating team, Mayslake savanna.

27OC99. Fox and gray squirrels both are active. The former have been eating nuts in recent days, one this morning in a box elder eating seeds, another appearing to work on a broken down old nest.

28OC99. Gray squirrel with nut, fox squirrel eating box elder seeds.

1NO99. Willowbrook again. Fox squirrel eating box elder seeds.

17NO99. A gray squirrel (young) and a fox squirrel both eating box elder seeds at Willowbrook.

2DE99. Several gray squirrels and 1 fox squirrel foraging on the ground.

30DE99. Fox squirrel at Willowbrook building leaf nest 15 feet up in a buckthorn in a tall-brush area. Taking leaves from nearby small oak that had not dropped many of them.

2FE00. A fox squirrel carried a ball of snow up onto a branch and ate from it.

14FE00. Many gray and fox squirrels this winter in nests only 12‑14 inches outer diameter at Willowbrook.

25FE00. Willowbrook, afternoon. 2 fox squirrels eating buds from a mulberry tree rich in witches’ brooms. Temperature 70F.

2MR00. Willowbrook. 2 fox squirrels sharing a hole in the trunk of a large willow, 1 of them adding leaves picked up from the ground.

Grooming the fur.

4MR00. A gray and 2 fox squirrels feeding on the expanding buds of an American elm near the Joy Path of Morton Arboretum. As I left the path to approach the tree to identify it, the gray squirrel immediately left and ran to other trees. As I walked up to the trunk, the lower of the fox squirrels finally left, but the higher one remained.

15MR00. Willowbrook. Fox squirrel nest high in the very top of a red oak across the exhibit trail from the eagle cage (occupant barked at another fox squirrel lower in tree). A fox squirrel eating expanding sugar maple buds.

13AP00. A fox squirrel feeding on expanding sugar maple buds, Willowbrook.

19AP00. Willowbrook. 2 fox squirrels eating expanding sugar maple buds.

7MY00. West DuPage Woods F.P. 2 fox squirrels clipping American elm twig ends and eating the nearly ripened seeds, then dropping the twigs with leaves.

1JA02. A fox squirrel at the Arboretum eating honey locust seeds from a thornless tree on a very cold day. Sometimes it ate individual seeds from the pod attached to the tree, sometimes removed entire pods and took the seeds from them.

This fox squirrel was mobbed by a pair of Baltimore Orioles in June of 2009 until it left their nest tree.

5OC10. Mayslake. A fox squirrel chased a gray squirrel on the ground in the south savanna.

27JA11. Mayslake. Fox squirrels feeding in thornless honey locust in south (former) friary grounds, presumably getting seeds from pods.

1DE11. Fox squirrel eating honey locust seeds from pod on ground.

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