Some Hoosier Grasshoppers

by Carl Strang

As I mentioned in the last post, grasshoppers pose problems different from other groups of singing insects. First, most of them don’t qualify as singing insects. Second, those that sing seldom do. Surveying them therefore must be on a visual rather than a hearing basis. Finally, even the visual approach isn’t simple. There are a lot of grasshopper species, sometimes distinguished by tiny structural features. A complete series of photos may be needed to assure an identification. You need every view, above, below, from the side, being sure to get good dorsal and lateral views of the end of the abdomen. Band-winged grasshoppers need to be captured and the wings spread. Also, the color of the hind tibia often is important. All of this was the lesson from grasshopper photos I took in Jasper, Pulaski and Starke Counties, Indiana, last week.

Some grasshoppers are relatively large and spectacular. The bird grasshoppers are the largest I have found to date in the region.

This appears to be the obscure bird grasshopper, common in places at the Jasper-Pulaski wildlife area but at or near the north end of its range.

This appears to be the obscure bird grasshopper, common in places at the Jasper-Pulaski wildlife area but at or near the north end of its range.

This is a different bird grasshopper from Round Lake conservation area, my best sorting of characters pointing to the spotted or prairie bird grasshopper, Schistocerca emarginata (S. lineata in older references). Note the different colors of the head and tibia, compared to the preceding species.

This is a different bird grasshopper from Round Lake conservation area, my best sorting of characters pointing to the spotted or prairie bird grasshopper, Schistocerca emarginata (S. lineata in older references). Note the different colors of the head and tibia, compared to the preceding species.

The remaining grasshoppers I photographed apparently are all in the enormous spur-throated grasshopper group. Their identifications I think are correct, but a few more photos of certain parts of them would have helped.

The graceful grasshopper, Melanoplus gracilis, is the one of these I most likely have right. It lives in moist grassy areas.

The graceful grasshopper, Melanoplus gracilis, is the one of these I most likely have right. It lives in moist grassy areas.

This may be a post oak grasshopper, Dendrotettix quercus. I found it in a dry oak savanna. Superficially it resembles the previous, but note the different wings.

This may be a post oak grasshopper, Dendrotettix quercus. I found it in a dry oak savanna. Superficially it resembles the previous, but note the different wings.

After poring through many reference photos, I had to conclude that this was a two-striped grasshopper. If I had looked at its back, I wouldn’t have needed to go to the trouble.

After poring through many reference photos, I had to conclude that this was a two-striped grasshopper. If I had looked at its back, I wouldn’t have needed to go to the trouble.

This grasshopper, like the previous one, didn’t give me a dorsal view, but I’m pretty sure it’s another two-striped.

This grasshopper, like the previous one, didn’t give me a dorsal view, but I’m pretty sure it’s another two-striped.

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Woodland Meadow Katydid

by Carl Strang

Sometimes the solution to a puzzle comes through a tiny clue, accidentally discovered. Why couldn’t I find woodland meadow katydids? For years I had listened for them and looked for them in habitats where they are supposed to occur. References suggested I should be able to hear their distinctive song around woodland edges, but also indicated they are more a southern species with only scattered populations as far north as the 22-county region I am surveying for singing insects.

On Wednesday I traveled to Jasper County, Indiana, and stopped at the western end of the Jasper-Pulaski state wildlife area. I put on the SongFinder, wanting to find short-winged meadow katydids to add to the Jasper County list, but almost immediately heard something odd. It sounded like a striped ground cricket, but perhaps lower in pitch.

The song was coming from the tall herbaceous vegetation around two white oak trees.

The song was coming from the tall herbaceous vegetation around two white oak trees.

I took off the headphones of the pitch-lowering device, and could no longer hear the song. As I continued to listen, I noticed that once in a while one of the quick short buzzes was preceded by a brief stuttering burst of ticks. Thanks to the stereophonic design of the SongFinder, I soon found the singer.

A male woodland meadow katydid!

A male woodland meadow katydid!

It’s the only dry-habitat meadow katydid in our area that is brown rather than green. Once I knew that I needed the SongFinder, and what to listen for, I found them in Pulaski County and, the next day, in Starke. At the Round Lake state conservation area I heard males singing, and spotted a female.

Though the ovipositor is slightly curved, the small size as well as the brown color separates this female from all the Orchelimum meadow katydids. Long-tailed meadow katydids can be brown, but have very long straight ovipositors and live in wetlands.

Though the ovipositor is slightly curved, the small size as well as the brown color separates this female from all the Orchelimum meadow katydids. Long-tailed meadow katydids can be brown, but have very long straight ovipositors and live in wetlands.

I had held out hope that this would prove to be the one Conocephalus meadow katydid that I could hear unaided, but such is not the case. That was the tiny clue I needed to solve the woodland meadow katydid puzzle.

Return to Newton and Jasper

by Carl Strang

On Monday I returned to Newton and Jasper Counties, Indiana, to survey for singing insects that had emerged since my earlier visits there (Newton County was the site of the bioblitz last year; I went to a new site this time, the Willow Slough State Fish and Wildlife Area). In Jasper County I went back to the Jasper-Pulaski Fish and Wildlife Area, and was especially interested in revisiting the savanna and sand prairie.

The savanna-sand prairie site at the time of my first visit.

The savanna-sand prairie site at the time of my first visit.

The most exciting find was an unfamiliar insect singing loudly from the black oak woodlands of both sites in the early to mid-afternoon. Its song was a series of quick buzzing sounds, as though a sword-bearing conehead (which sings at night) woke up way early and got hold of a megaphone. With that volume at that time of day well up in the trees it had to be a cicada, and when I later referred to sources and listened to reference recordings it was clearly the green-winged cicada, Diceroprocta vitripennis. This is a species I thought I might have heard in DuPage County at the time of the periodical cicada emergence in 2007, but the songs were difficult to separate from the loud Magicicada choruses, and I have not heard it since, until Monday. I did not see one, but hope to get a photo in the future.

Otherwise the singing insects were familiar, though I did pick up a number of county records and heard a few species singing for the first time this year.

Also, a very large, interesting looking grasshopper flew up from the sand prairie and landed on a tree after a graceful flight on its long wings.

It was noticeably larger than the Carolina grasshopper, the most common large grasshopper in the region.

It was noticeably larger than the Carolina grasshopper, the most common large grasshopper in the region.

The color pattern, behavior and habitat point to the obscure bird grasshopper (Schistocerca obscura), not a singing insect but an interesting attention-grabber nevertheless.

Scouting Jasper County

by Carl Strang

The Jasper-Pulaski State Fish and Wildlife Area in Indiana started out as a recreational destination for hunters and fishermen. Natural history enthusiasts in the region associate J-P with sandhill cranes, as the big birds pause there by the thousands when they migrate north and south, and birders congregate as well, to see them.

J-P seemed a good place to find singing insects in Jasper County, and I stopped there to scout the property on my way home from last weekend’s trip. Some of the back roads lead to extensive ponds and marshes, which will be of interest later in the season. My favorite spot, though, was at an intersection of two gravel roads where the soil was heavy in sand, with a black oak savanna and wide berms of sand prairie vegetation.

Tiny oaks form a vanguard as the savanna reaches into the prairie.

Tiny oaks form a vanguard as the savanna reaches into the prairie.

As I walked one of the roads, I flushed a sulfur-winged grasshopper. I had been hoping for a photo opportunity with this species.

At first glance this insect seems doomed, its dark color contrasting with the pale sand.

At first glance this insect seems doomed, its dark color contrasting with the pale sand.

Unless you are very close to it, however, the grasshopper just looks like a little stick or piece of debris.

The folded forewings conceal bright yellow hind wings with broad black edges.

The folded forewings conceal bright yellow hind wings with broad black edges.

The next time a similar opportunity comes up, I’ll try for a flight photo that will show those hind wings. In any case, I drove away from J-P with some great locations, and three early-season species to start my Jasper County singing insects list (green-striped grasshopper and spring field cricket were the other two).

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