Whitetail Deer Dossier

by Carl Strang

It’s time to start sharing some of my larger files of notes from personal observations of our vertebrate wildlife. This week’s feature is our local hoofed critter. The preliminary notes, written in the mid-80’s, are more extensive than usual. The dated notes that follow provide many illustrations of the value of tracking in behavior studies.

Deer, Whitetail

Buck in a bed

Buck in a bed

Deer can be seen in a variety of habitats. Their home range always includes some woodland, brush and meadow or marsh areas. They travel on well used trails, occasionally wandering off them to feed. Commonly they enter meadows to feed at dusk. In winter, they feed on browse. In northern Illinois they hit Rosaceae (blackberries, roses, etc.) early in winter, then eat a variety of woody plants, then by mid-February are eating poison ivy almost exclusively. Cottontails follow the same sequence of foods, but deer-browsed twigs usually are bitten off higher and have a torn edge from the deer’s lack of upper incisors. Through January (though mainly in October and November), bucks attack certain shrubs and saplings along trails, breaking twigs and usually also eating a couple (antler rubs). At Herrick Lake Forest Preserve I noticed that pioneer bur oaks in fields were especially exposed to this abuse.

Shrubs missing bark after being rubbed by a buck’s antlers

Shrubs missing bark after being rubbed by a buck’s antlers

Does in spring have fawns which at first remain quietly curled up on ground, freezing when approached. If they do wander, they will call for mother with a sheep-like bleating sound. As their size and strength improve they begin to travel with mother, although on occasion they will drop into a frozen curled position when a threat is detected. Spots can remain into late summer.

Deer flushed close have tail-lifting display, spreading the white hairs underneath (on small fawns the display is disproportionately large). At a distance, when at least partly in cover, they give a high-pitched, whistling snort, often accompanied by a stomping of the feet.

Bony antlers grow slowly through summer, covered with velvety skin. In late fall they dry, the skin comes off. By spring the antlers have been shed.

Tracks usually are 2-toed hoof marks. Leaping deer or those in deep soft substrates also will make 2 smaller dewclaw prints. In deep snow, the tips of the nails often make drag marks. I have seen deer leap over 6-foot fences, and tracks have shown horizontal jumps of more than 12 feet.

In May, deer on Reineman Sanctuary (PA) fed on fiddleheads of hay-scented ferns, but didn’t touch them after they unfolded. Among summer foods were leaves and twigs of greenbrier.

Deer tracks typically show two toes. Here, a deer was walking but accelerating.

Deer tracks typically show two toes. Here, a deer was walking but accelerating.

27DE86, Memorial Forest near Culver: deer recently browsed sassafras.

10JA87. Herrick Lake Forest Preserve. After last night’s heavy snow, tracks (made this morning, early) only abundant at a large patch of brush in SE corner of preserve, along N edge. All made early this morning except one flushed by a person who was tracking it.

11JA87. Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve. Deer were bedding in snow in same general area, had been there a while before my approach scared them up around 11:30 a.m. They had not cleared a place but just lay down, and the snow barely melted. Beds of the 4 deer were 5-20m apart. Other areas, similar in size and with sides pressed smooth by deer’s body (1 with hairs), had ground bare on the bottom (snow 6 inches deep). In the one with the hairs there were no clear signs of digging, but the others clearly had been dug out.

17JA87, Herrick Lake Forest Preserve. Half an inch of new snow fell the night before. I started tracking in the afternoon, but the tracks were difficult to follow as individual deer and small groups flowed together and apart, anastomosing their trails so that I couldn’t follow an individual for long.

18JA87. McKee Marsh. Better luck. 4 inches of new snow fell overnight, and I was able to follow a single deer for 2 hours, covering about a mile. I was able to stick with him (I believe it was a large buck). I began in the woods near the parking lot, where he followed a winding path, sniffing several shrubs and browsing on a Viburnum (3-lobed leaves and paired red basswood-like buds) and on buckthorn. In one spot where he urinated copiously there were symmetrical shallow hoof marks on either side of his trail, which had the effect of scooping snow into the spot where the urine fell. Then he emerged into open fields E of the woods, wound through a marshy spot, crossed Mack Road, then angled ESE. At one point he suddenly was spooked by a fresh snowmobile track, jumped to the left, then walked across the track and rejoined the trail. Occasionally I had problems when he joined another deer, but by finding every footprint I was able to stay with him until he re-entered the woods and joined 3 other deer. When they split I could not be absolutely sure which he was, but I have about 50% confidence that I followed the right one. He ate more Rhamnus, paused to browse heavily on a young bur oak, wandered up a hill, then joined another galloping deer (and 2-3 others), they all crossed Mack Road onto private property and I could not follow.

Where a buck urinated on his feet, blending tarsal gland secretions with urinary scents

Where a buck urinated on his feet, blending tarsal gland secretions with urinary scents

1FE87. Freshly browsed poison ivy, McKee Marsh. Also white ash within the past 2 weeks. Another deer browsed a woodland rosaceous small tree (probably crabapple), 2 inches dbh. Also a basswood. Twice, it defecated shortly after passing under low branches and browsing a few bites. I tracked the deer until I caught up with it in the cattail marsh north of the woods E of the marsh. It had turned to stand in a well hidden spot to watch me. When I got too close it burst from cover, bounded on through the cattails and through the field on the other side. Tracks in field took more of a bound pattern (not so spread front to back) before and after taller weeds, bounding high to clear them.

Later that same day, following another group of deer, I found where one had bedded briefly, at least, in the wet snow.

21FE87. At Greene Valley Forest Preserve. 5 bucks, still with antlers, traveling together as a group. They were moving fast when first seen, traveling through an open field between hedgerows at around noon. They stopped for a while after gaining a second hedgerow, then slowly moved in my direction (I was wearing a navy blue sweatshirt and dark brown pants, and kneeling). They always had one watching me, often all did, but didn’t run away until much later when I stood and walked. Once, a couple sparred with antlers. Mostly 4-6-pointers.

28FE87. At least 3 deer flushed from area thick with saplings and brush under scattered trees, only 150m from busy highway.

23MR87. Waterfall Glen. Deer dead beside creek near intersection of Cass Ave. and 91st Street. Lying in deer-beaver trail, hind feet in water (fracture of left hind tibia partly healed), head end up on bank. Dead at least a week, ribs largely gnawed away, head gone, muscle and internal organs mostly gone except hindquarters. Other tracks of beavers and dog or coyote (probably latter) nearby.

MY87. New Jersey Pine Barrens. Deer browsing blueberries, a little on oaks.

4AU87. Lebanon State Forest, NJ. 4-5 deer flushed from blueberry undergrowth, bounded until out of sight. Then one snorted a couple of times. I could hear them walking in even steps, without the hitching, explosive quality of a towhee. A little sharper and louder than the sound made by the gray fox seen shortly before. That night, as I walked barefoot in the dark, I came within 10 feet of a bedded deer. The deer detected me, and made a terrific racket getting to its feet. By the time it snorted so I knew what it was, I had taken 2 steps back.

Bumps on the head identify this newly spot-free fawn as a male.

Bumps on the head identify this newly spot-free fawn as a male.

3JA88. McDowell Forest Preserve. Following deer tracks, at least 4 days old. Browsed black maple, as well as several scotch pine branch tips (a broken-off branch, about 0.25 inches in diameter where browsed off; twisting and tearing of adjacent needles. Soon thereafter, browsed from a rose bush (prior to all this eating had followed a slightly sinuous path through maple woods, walking steadily). Tracks probably made New Year’s Eve (day before cold front). Feet compacted very wet snow, so probably late afternoon. Stopped to rub antlers on 0.75-inch dbh maple sapling, on its trunk from 1 foot to 2 feet up from ground, bark removed from one side. Soon thereafter it fell in with 2 other deer. Tracks same age, difficult to distinguish, but I believe the one I’m following has a longer stride. They paused to browse buckthorn, maple, rose (mainly the other 2?). Eventually the 3 bedded down beside a multi-stemmed, branchy silver maple in the midst of a field, about 100m from I-88 (in clear view; dark by then). 2 bedded together, third 10 feet from them. They stayed a little while, but still slushy when they left. They headed for the West Branch of the DuPage River, meandered, browsed, another antler rub. Lots of beds in that area. Tracks turn back along stream toward center of preserve. Lots of deer tracks enter and are present in that area by the stream, but none leave. The deer must cross the stream. I backtracked a bit. Buck had been with the others just before I picked up trail, probably was within sight of them throughout.

9JA88. Most of the needles on that pine branch now are browsed away. Deer commonly cross the river just opposite that grove, though routinely bedding among the yews and other ornamental shrubs between there and the stream. Once across, there is a tall fence paralleling the river and about 30 yards on average from it. The deer remain between river bank and fence. A heavily traveled corridor, a bedding area not far from that crossing site. Opposite the zone where I presume they also crossed the river last week, the fence is low enough for them to jump easily, and they either do that, or go under it at a nearby creek (more common), or continue along fence (also common). But soon comes I-88, and it appears to be a complete barrier on that side. A few cross the river there, a few go around the end of the fence. A very few go under I-88, on west side of river. None have crossed in that presumed crossing zone, but the ice probably has been thick enough to support them for only a couple days, and an open lead about 3 feet across runs along the entire east side along that stretch. That might explain why the tracks were running the opposite direction from last week on the stretches-in-common.

When you hold still and allow a deer to approach, it will stare at you and occasionally stomp a foot as though to startle you into moving and revealing yourself.

When you hold still and allow a deer to approach, it will stare at you and occasionally stomp a foot as though to startle you into moving and revealing yourself.

16JA88. McDowell deer crossed the preserve entrance road just west of the bridge, followed trail steadily between road and river (top of bank). Night before last, not last night. Lost in human and dog tracks, just before widening of area and feeding signs spread out from trail. Well below dam (at least 200m). There signs of much deer activity. Several beds in hill and old-wall area. More feeding and trails (well-used) in even wider area S of there. I flushed a large doe and 2 non-spotted fawns from beds in a pole-tree area a little farther down. They soon circled back around me (to my N). Visible parts: sharp dark horizontal line of back, horizontal white streak of belly cutting through trunks, from side; narrow white outline of tail from back, black nose and eye; brownish cast of fur against gray of trunks (not as distinct).

23JA88. McDowell. Deer recently browsed bur oak sapling. Tracked group of 4-8 deer into NW corner of preserve, brushy area seldom frequented by people, W of beaver pond (dam long, a winding 20-30 yards).

27JA88. Dan Ludwig flew over McDowell and passed on observations of deer: 8 in NW corner, 3 in NE near toll road (both groups west of river, and 6 SE, possibly off preserve.

30JA88. Hartz Lake. Deer trails through woods generally straight, and located to accommodate traveling from one goal to another (goals on either side of woods). Much interdigitation and side-paths abundant around the moist, tall meadows.

29AP88. Pratts Wayne Forest Preserve. Micro pressure releases in one or other toe show where push or pivot was greatest.

1MY88. Warrenville Grove Forest Preserve. Deer ate off tops of several Smilacina racemosa, plus a couple of Alliaria (and other plants, individually removed lower leaves). Not real recently, say 3-8 days ago.

7MY88. Deer tracks, Indian trails of Culver, also ate off tops of a few Smilacina stellata. At Hartz Lake, when one broke a twig loudly, jay responded with “thief” call.

15JL88. Deer heavily eating the Tradescantia at Fulton County museum property, not too long ago. Also eating Seymeria macrophylla.

Antlers nearly grown, but still covered in velvety skin as the bone matures

Antlers nearly grown, but still covered in velvety skin as the bone matures

1AP89. Patch of deer hair on ground in clearing at Hartz Lake. (I also saw some at Winfield Mounds last weekend). Shedding already.

2AP89. Hartz Lake. Deer in groups around clearing (in woods with very little understory) around 9 a.m. A deer snorted. I could just see it through the trees. The nose moved, perhaps a couple inches, but that was the largest motion I could see when it snorted.

13MY89. Hartz Lake, camping. In the dusk, 8 deer came to the prairie area (I was sitting at the opposite edge, by fire). Though basically a doe group, one yearling (small) buck was with them. He was chased a couple times, and a deer struck his back with a forefoot (not a mounting, but a blow). Smaller does still chase after mothers (presumed relationship) to be close to them, when alarmed. I kept still. They saw me, frequently moved heads side to side for parallax.

4JE89. Elsen’s Hill: deer trot pattern showing groups of two prints, 1 foot between prints in a group and 3 feet between groups. Two alternating group types, with front foot of each side ahead of hind foot of other side in that group.

21AU89. Deer tracks, Willowbrook Back 40. Emerged from run, NE corner. Walked down to pond, but stayed above edge (recently arrived, and had drunk from brook?). Nervous. Much starting and stopping, and stomping. Reached a small gulley, then broke into lope, as though the need for the longer step set off a release of nervous energy. 24-inch steps before the lope (toe-tip to toe-tip, measured diagonally). Tendency to splay left front foot and show its dew claws in the lope. While loping, set of 4 tracks 35 inches front to back, groups about 70 inches apart. The tracks were made last night (it had rained the night before last, the tracks made after the rain and after the soil surface had dried). About ten days later: In a hard lope up the hill, the deer showed dewclaws and spread toes on all but the right front. The deer stayed only a couple of weeks. We heard of someone who saw 2 bucks.

2SE89. Tracking deer across screenings trail, McKee Marsh. Stride tended to be slightly longer (23 inches toe tip to toe tip) in tall grass than on path (19-21 inches), except where adjusting stride to clear obstacles. At one point, a hind foot seemed to indicate a turn, falling and pointing to left of the front print, but in fact kept going in the same direction. Response to a disturbance as that foot came down? Implies independence of the 4 feet. Also happened the previous step with that foot.

15SE89. Hartz Lake, edge of open dune. Deer usually pause at edge of clear area before entering it. Shorter strides, and standing.

20SE89. McKee Marsh. A deer, steps 20-20.5 inches on packed screenings trail, became 25-27 inches in tall grass.

Sometimes deer tracks through tall grass are quite clear.

Sometimes deer tracks through tall grass are quite clear.

23SE89. Forest Park Nature Center, Peoria, IL. Deer have been browsing Aster shortii, a species of ridgetops, heavily in recent weeks. This has been their main food within the forest in this period, except for acorns.

24NO89. Hartz Lake. 2 deer beds, SE corner (behind cemetery) in woods. Windy day, saw 2 deer crossing road mid-afternoon, and as I studied tracks on the open dune a doe with a broken or injured right front leg limped past.

13DE89. Hartz Lake. Deer heavily using main north-south trail past couple of days (since snowfall).

16DE89. McDowell Forest Preserve. Patterns of deer activity in west part of preserve much the same as last winter. The only difference is a possible shift from the old home site to the center of the adjacent field in the north part of the preserve. If anything, there is even more concentration of activity to the north end of the preserve than before.

4FE90. Recently shed antler near mouth of Sawmill Creek, Waterfall Glen Forest Preserve.

Late MY90. Hartz Lake. A deer appeared to stomp and snort as a gambit to make me move. Odor and sound spooked them more than small movements.

9JE90. Winfield Mounds. Heavy feeding by deer on goldenrods, past couple of weeks.

Wet forest litter from a recent rain foiled this fawn’s camouflage. Fawn spots form individualized patterns that permit recognition of individuals as long as they last.

Wet forest litter from a recent rain foiled this fawn’s camouflage. Fawn spots form individualized patterns that permit recognition of individuals as long as they last.

30JE90. West DuPage Woods. Fawn moving about and exploring on its own. Still small, but strong. I held still, it slowly moved toward me, sniffing and occasionally stamping like an adult. When mother appeared, and bolted, it ran, too. Tail flag.

13JL90. McKee Marsh. As I was running through the forest, I saw a fawn, approaching half adult size, on the trail ahead. I slowed and quieted my steps. It bolted when I was 10 yards away, and its mother and its sibling, who were close by, bolted as well. Unless the mother gave an audible signal I missed (unlikely, though I was so focused on the fawn that I didn’t see her), she was waiting for the fawn to make the move. If so, she was teaching it to run away from people and to react on its own without depending on her signal.

2JE91. First fawn tracks of the year, Pratts Wayne Woods Forest Preserve.

Doe and fawn. By November, the fawns’ spots are gone.

Doe and fawn. By November, the fawns’ spots are gone.

21DE91. Hidden Lake Forest Preserve. Followed last night’s tracks of a very large deer, sex uncertain but more likely male. Traveled relatively straight lines through open field, but began highly convoluted turnings in a brushier area as it began feeding. Principal (only?) food Geum laciniatum basal leaves, nosed rather than pawed snow to reach them. Ate many. Went out of its way to examine a coyote or dog bed. Bedded, itself, several hours. Note: outward tracks from bed looked older than inward ones. Snow apparently less compactable, or more easily self-kicked back into track, with less smoothly compacted bottom of track and less crisp edges. Wandered and fed more after leaving bed. Defecated several times.

17FE92. Elsen’s Hill (W. DuPage Woods Forest Preserve.). I kept mainly to deer trails, saw 2 deer in a brushy area and, later, in a forest, saw 2 getting up from their beds. I stood still for a while, there, listening, and soon caught movement. Three deer slowly moved into view. Almost certainly the ones I had spooked, a doe and 2 fawns. I kept very still and they approached, the doe doing the foot-stomping test. Sometimes it appears to be largely a nervous expression, others it is very deliberate and calculated, the deer staring hard and keeping its head still while doing so. The fawns kept back. Several times she gradually worked to within 20 yards, then abruptly turned and ran, tail flagging, the fawns doing so as well. On one of these occasions she snorted several times. But I kept still, she didn’t go far, and repeated the process. The closest she ever came was 40 feet. I was wearing the green and black wool coat, standing clear of trees, with a medium density of 2-4-inch dbh trees and a few large ones in that area. The deer finally left for good at the sound of human voices on a trail not too far away, but the deer walked away rather than ran. During all of this there were occasional crows and squirrels seeing me and vocalizing. The deer attended the squirrels, but not the crows, starting at the squirrel’s bark and becoming more wary of me.

3OC93. Rock Island Park, Wisconsin. 2 bucks facing one another, heads lowered near to ground, maneuvering antlers. Like arm-wrestlers seeking best grip.

Early in the 90’s I had a season of deer hunting. During a several-day cold rainy period I sat for hours without seeing any deer. On drier days they were active.

Deer visited several times during the 90’s at Willowbrook. Usually they stayed 2 weeks at most, but during the summer of 1997 a couple of them stayed from May into August.

JE99, Kansas, Konza Prairie. A deer snorted and ran as I approached, holding head and nose above horizontal a bit while snorting.

15MY06. Fullersburg. A deer eating Virginia creeper leaves from a ground vine.

During the 3 years my office was at Fullersburg Woods Forest Preserve, I mapped the winter movements of the preserve’s deer. In the winter of 2006-7 there were 4 groups which followed consistent daily routes as shown.

During the 3 years my office was at Fullersburg Woods Forest Preserve, I mapped the winter movements of the preserve’s deer. In the winter of 2006-7 there were 4 groups which followed consistent daily routes as shown.

28AP08. New antlers beginning to grow on bucks (similar stage photographed 3 May last year).

New antlers just starting to grow

New antlers just starting to grow

15SE10. Meacham Grove. While doing herbivory data collecting I saw 3 antlerless deer. One, a fawn that had become spotless, made a persistent effort to nurse from its mother for a minute or so until she pushed it away. The third I believe was another adult doe.

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Blue Jay Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

This week’s species dossier contains my observations of the blue jay, a bird I regard as the Forest Crier, who lets everybody know what is going on.

Blue jay

Blue jay

Jay, Blue

Lives in forests and old, tree-filled residential areas. Nested in the yard at Culver (15′ up in silver maple), riparian strip at Willowbrook Forest Preserve, IL (8′ up in small tree) and Maple Grove F.P. (10′ up in hawthorn at forest edge, incubating 31MY86). Bird reluctant to move when on nest. Eats mainly insects in summer, a lot of nuts and seeds in fall and winter. Forages from ground to top of canopy. Very vocal. “Eeth! Eeth!” sharp alarm call; rising, accelerating “a-a-a-ee-ee-ee-ee” (long a’s and ee’s) begging/feeding call of young (much like crows’); “ool-ool” and “teekle-teekle” calls accompanied by peculiar bobbing of body. Captive reared birds at the Willowbrook Wildlife Center often used this latter movement in concert with vocal mimicries (whistles, telephone ringing). Low, highly musical, conversation-like vocalizations among Willowbrook’s caged birds. Wild birds mimic calls of various hawks. They travel in loosely organized flocks much of the year. Mob crows in spring. Courtship feeding observed in a treetop at Maple Grove F.P. on 10MY86. Tend to take over feeders, other birds stay away until they leave.

15JE86. As a broad-winged hawk flew past, pursued by a couple of starlings at Maple Grove, a blue jay uttered a single “eeth!” call.

Late summer 86. As a flock of ground-feeding grackles flushed at the approach of people, jays and downy woodpeckers at Meacham Grove emitted contact calls, apparently as a final check of location and status before possible flight.

11MY88. Responded to deer breaking twig loudly with “thief” call, Hartz Lake.

12MY88. Jay on nest in 20′ box elder, nest 15′ up, riparian strip of Willowbrook Back 40.

5JE88. In the middle of Geneva I stood under a tree in which a pair of cardinals suddenly began to alarm-call rapidly. They were close to me, but not paying attention to me. The calls were directed at a blue jay which the cardinals chased from the isolated street-side tree to a clump of trees and brush, and continued the alarm calling and chasing until the jay left. The jay resisted some, was not driven off easily.

29MY88. Hartz Lake, in woods. A chipmunk saw me move my arm laterally, gave 3 chips increasing in speed, and ran. Immediately 2 jays feeding on the ground flew up. They were 40-50 feet away.

13JL88. Blue jay young still following, begging from parent, though they look full grown.

18OC88. Cactus Camp, IN. A blue jay yelling at me with repeated, energetic “jay jay” (“thief thief,” “eeth eeth”) calls.

24DE88. Cactus Camp. Jays doing a lot of “jay” mobbing; information about animals moving away from me?

4JE89. Elsen’s Hill Forest Preserve, IL. Teekettle call used as a warning to an intruding jay, given as the intruder landed. After several repetitions the intruder hadn’t left, and so the calling bird flew into the same oak and began to displace it (flights of 10-20 feet). It “jay”ed once, then resumed “teakettles,” continuing displacements and increasing their frequency, until the intruder left.

11JE89. Cactus Camp. Pair of jays mobbed me with loud “jay” calls.

17JE89. A broad-wing called repeatedly, in north end of Maple Grove. Jays, flickers and grackles highly agitated, flickers the most continuously vocal with “keels” every 2 seconds (2 birds). Grackles gacking frequently, too. A great crested flycatcher near, also vocal, but not clearly in response to the hawk; same with chickadees. Robins definitely disturbed, with nervous dee-dee-dee’s every 20 seconds or so. Jays in bursts, with several birds mobbing.

18AU89. Willowbrook marsh. Kestrel and jays. Latter making a strange, harsh, parrot-like call. Chasing, mobbing. Kestrel seemed to stoop at the jays a couple times, but the jays kept mobbing until the kestrel left.

31AU89. Jays vigorously “jay”-ing at a great horned owl well hidden among leaves in a willow top. Chipmunks chucking nearby, below.

3SE89. Jays maintain contacts with a-a calls (long a’s) and a variety of squeaky notes.

14OC89. Cactus Camp. Jays “jay”ing at a hawk, landing on branches nearby. Hawk appeared to be a red-tail, but was down inside forest. Jays stayed with it as it flew.

Late MY90. Cactus Camp. Jays foraged in accumulated oak leaves in the open among short brush by perching on tree or sapling branches, searching the ground, and making short flights out.

 

Western Chorus Frog Dossier

by Carl Strang

An early sign of spring’s arrival is the sound of massed chorus frogs. Here are my limited specific observations of them.

Western chorus frog

Western chorus frog

Frog, Western Chorus Known in my experience mainly from DuPage County, IL, and the Culver, Indiana, area. In early spring they sing in large numbers, in crickety sounding calls, in temporary ponds. I saw one in the back yard of the house we rented in Glendale Heights. Small and striped, crawling in the grass. Closest pond where they sang was at least 200m away.

7MR87. Singing at West Chicago Prairie.

22MR87. Singing at Fish Hatchery, Culver, in first partial pond west of ditches.

12MR88. Brief song from one at McDowell Forest Preserve.

26MR88. Singing just west of Hartz Lake property.

27MR89. First song of year heard at McKee Marsh.

23AP89. Herrick Lake Forest Preserve. I water-stalked a singing frog, close enough to see it, or at least the movement caused by its singing. It was in or just above the water, which vibrated with the song. It was in a place where broken-down cattails created a small (almost completely covering) shelter. They sing in alternation: pairs, high and low. High starts. If a few calls do not involve a nearby frog in a duet, the first stops.

10MR97. Heard one singing while I ran on Prairie Path near Rt. 59.

20MR99. First chorus frogs of spring heard in 2 places.

30OC99. 1-2 (same one found twice?) found on an extensive mudflat at Fermilab.

5MR00. A few singing at Lake Law, Fermilab, in an area of shallow water and dense dead stems of cattails and grasses.

2MY00. A couple still singing.

24SE00. A few individuals singing weakly in the tall, goldenrod-dominated upland vegetation between the large lakes at Fermilab.

14OC00. Occasional song, still, at Fermilab. Much like spring peeper’s pattern of fall singing.

21MR01. First of year, a couple only, heard near Prairie Path east of Warrenville. A cold, lingering winter.

15AP01. Quite a few singing near the McKee Marsh outlet. 12SE01. I heard single brief song beside the prairie path north of Butterfield and west of Fermilab in late afternoon.

12OC02. A few weakly singing individuals at Fermilab, in low spots.

21MR05. One singer at the Hartz Lake property.

13JE06. Tri-County State Park. Chorus frogs and American toads have resumed singing after heavy recent rains have raised water levels, here and at Fermilab for chorus frogs, and here and at Fullersburg for toads.

5AP10. Mayslake. A jump in chorus frog numbers from last year. Last year they were at the stream corridor marsh only, and the maximum male count was 12. This year, up to 22. Furthermore, there were satellite groups in the parking lot marsh (3) and the reed-canary-grass pool east of the dog fence (5).

25OC10. Mayslake. Chorus frogs calling, three individuals in three places: one on top of a wooded hill; one in the middle of the meadow west of the dog area, and one a short distance south of the stream corridor marsh.

27OC10. Mayslake. A western chorus frog called from on or right beside the path N of the stream corridor marsh. No hibernaculum candidate there.

17MR11. Mayslake. First singers of the season, in stream corridor and parking lot marshes.

One reason chorus frogs can be difficult to see is that they often select sheltered places from which to sing. The edge of one’s expanded throat is just visible beneath the log.

One reason chorus frogs can be difficult to see is that they often select sheltered places from which to sing. The edge of one’s expanded throat is just visible beneath the log.

29SE11. Mayslake. At least 3 chorus frogs calling in close proximity in a reed canary grass area. Another in the main meadow W of dog fence.

Spring 2013. Mayslake. Hardly any chorus frog activity this spring, in the wake of last year’s drought, despite the re-filling of the marshes.

Yellow-rumped Warbler Dossier

by Carl Strang

Today’s species dossier selection focuses on the yellow-rumped warbler, the species in its family that winters the farthest north, with a few sometimes staying through the winter in northern Illinois. Mainly we see them in migration, however, as they nest in the North Woods.

Warbler, Yellow-rumped

Yellow-rumped warbler

Yellow-rumped warbler

This is a very abundant warbler, observed around Culver and Lafayette in Indiana, DuPage County, Illinois, and Cumberland and Perry Counties, Pennsylvania. Usually they travel in flocks, foraging from the low understory to the canopy top. Many stay late in fall, and some appear early in spring. They retain the yellow rump patch (an obvious “follow-me” signal) year-’round. Call of fall birds “tseeet,” slight slur down in pitch early in call, then up at end, again slightly.

21AP87. Has appeared at McKee Marsh, Blackwell Forest Preserve.

26AP87. Song “tsew, tsew, tsew, tli-tli-tli-tli” (short I’s). In late morning at North Blackwell, these are sitting on perches and looking, as palm warblers did, but traveling farther between perches, working higher (mostly mid tree canopy) and not hover gleaning so much as flycatching.

29AP87. Some have songs composed entirely of the “tli” syllables, others place “tsew” syllables in the middle, others have more “tsew’s” than “tli’s.” Any combination of those two syllables seems possible, 8-15 syllables total in a song.

1MY87. Still a predominantly sit-and-wait foraging style.

4OC87. First fall migrants observed at Maple Grove.

12OC87. A yellow-rumped warbler foraged on the ground, hopping, probing, and peering under the leaves of the plants. It moved slowly, less than 1 foot per minute, turning all around.

13OC87. I observed 2 in Willowbrook’s Back 40, and on the 16th, several in the old field there.

17AP88. A couple at Blackwell Forest Preserve.

29AP88. One observed foraging in trees, spending 1-5 seconds per perch scanning, and moving 3-several feet between perches. It pursued prey once, and also tore apart a cottonwood flower. Then it sally-foraged a while. Later, it switched to reaching and probing in the flowers, moving shorter distances (mostly 1 inch-1 foot). The song was relatively weak for a warbler, accelerating through its 2-3 second duration.

7MY88. Indian Trails, Culver. One flycatching.

8OC88. Hidden Lake Forest Preserve. Abundant in woods, and in fields.

11OC88. Observed in Willowbrook Back 40.

18OC88. Observed at Hartz Lake, foraging with or at least near chickadees and golden-crowned kinglets.

17AP89. First of year seen, Willowbrook Back 40. Next mentioned 30AP, McDowell.

9MY89. One at Willowbrook, flycatching low beside stream.

21OC89. Lots of them in West DuPage Woods Forest Preserve. Foraging mainly by flycatching and hover-gleaning. Air cool, 50F or less, sunny, breezy.

Male breeding colors are much brighter, but I have yet to photograph one.

Male breeding colors are much brighter, but I have yet to photograph one.

17AP90. First of year seen, Willowbrook Back 40.

23AP90. One foraging in silver poplars at Willowbrook, probing etc. in canopies, with song: “we-see’-we-see -we-see -we-see -we-see” very fast, with slight emphasis on 2nd syllable and 20-30 seconds between songs. Afternoon.

19AP99. First of season noted at Willowbrook. Last spring migrant there 13MY.

30SE99. First yellow-rumped warblers of the fall, many at Willowbrook, 2 eating poison ivy berries. Also seen eating them on 5OC, 12OC.

20AP00. First spring migrants at Willowbrook. (I saw my first of the year 18AP while running near Warrenville).

22AP00. East Woods Trail, Morton Arboretum. Several yellow-rumps feeding high in forest canopy. One observed in crown of a sugar maple in flower. The bird was mainly sitting still, reaching into flower clusters for insects. They are singing the weak sounding song that alternates between two notes, beginning weakly, crescendo and decrescendo into a trailing, weak ending. Also calling: a harsh, “pick” sound, dull and flat in tonal quality but a sharply pronounced, sparrow-like note.

7AP01. First yellow-rumps of the season at Greene Valley Forest Preserve, feeding in trees in chickadee style, with much searching of twigs and bark, and a flush-and-pursuit seen.

30SE01. Many yellow-rumped warblers along the Fox River and on Island Park, Batavia. Spread out all over, some hover-gleaning, some flycatching, others getting poison ivy berries.

27DE01: Yellow-rumped warbler at Willowbrook, foraging at the edge of the open stream, seen to catch a small worm prey.

19DE03. A yellow-rumped warbler at Willowbrook feeding on poison ivy berries and calling, the first seen there in weeks.

28SE10. Mayslake. Some yellow-rumps eating cedar berries.

26OC10. Mayslake. In recent days I have found that yellow-rumped warblers can produce the common warbler call-note (high pitched, briefer) in addition to their lower species specific note.

10DE10. Mayslake. Yellow-rumped warbler eating cedar berries near the mansion.

Yellow-rumped warbler eating a red cedar berry

Yellow-rumped warbler eating a red cedar berry

25AP11. Mayslake. A yellow-rump singing a patterned song repeatedly, very similar to Nashville warbler song but ending just different enough to distinguish.

29AP11. Mayslake. Another distinctive yellow-rump song, this one ending like the one earlier in the week but beginning with a rising sequence of notes as in a scale.

Eastern Phoebe Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

The eastern phoebe is the earliest tyrant flycatcher to appear in our area, thanks to its overwintering in the southern U.S. rather than the tropics. It won’t be long now, though the snow must go away first.

Phoebe, Eastern

Eastern phoebe

Eastern phoebe

(Initial paragraph establishing this dossier in the mid-1980’s) Phoebe locations have included the Bird Sanctuary near Culver, Indiana, along streams around Lafayette, and at Reineman Sanctuary in Pennsylvania. Usually nests have been near water (streams). The nest, built with much mud, rests on a small shelf against a wall under an overhang (e.g. on cliff, bridge or against building). They catch insects with normal flycatching foraging behavior, sallying from perches into openings. Song “fee-bee” or “fee-beehee” (last 2 syllables sounding like a hiccup), with equal accent on the 2 syllables.

21OC89. A phoebe foraged from low perches in forest, West DuPage Woods Forest Preserve (perches no more than 8 feet up).

8MR92. A phoebe called near Hartz Lake in Indiana.

6-7AP96. Phoebes are passing through in woodlands, despite the late spring: 2 together at Elsen’s Hill on a slope overlooking the West Branch of the DuPage River on the 6th, one at Fabyan Park, Kane County, on the 7th.

16OC96. Phoebe singing high in tree at Willowbrook.

1AP99. First phoebe of the year, Willowbrook.

26MR00. A phoebe foraged high in trees near the river at West DuPage Woods, flycatching a good 30 feet up.

12AP00. A migrant in the savanna at Willowbrook.

Phoebe fledglings

Phoebe fledglings

27AU00. Migrants were common today in the Natural Area at Illinois Beach State Park.

3AP02. Willowbrook. Soil blackened by the prairie burn proved attractive to the early migrant eastern phoebes, which took advantage of sun-warmed activity by insects to collect food in the prairie.

21MR04. Willowbrook. Two phoebes in the prairie.

3NO04. Willowbrook. A phoebe still present on the preserve.

MY05. Willowbrook. For the first time, nesting was confirmed on the preserve for eastern phoebes. The flycatchers built their nest in the beams beneath the bridge over Glen Crest Creek, and 4 large nestlings still were present on May 31. (They fledged by mid-June).

13AP09. Phoebes at least in migration commonly produce a loud sharp call note, “tsewp!”

5OC10. Mayslake. Singing: white-crowned sparrow, phoebe, cardinal, song sparrow.

Phoebe incubating a nest on the former friary building at Mayslake Forest Preserve. Phoebes have taken advantage of bridges and other human structures to provide foundations for their nests of mud and vegetation.

Phoebe incubating a nest on the former friary building at Mayslake Forest Preserve. Phoebes have taken advantage of bridges and other human structures to provide foundations for their nests of mud and vegetation.

6AP11. Mayslake. Phoebe calling continuously from the tip of a tree close to where they nested last year at the now removed friary. Trying to connect with mate before searching for a new spot? (The previous 2 years they had nested on the friary building. Two years ago they had 2 broods, produced only a cowbird each time).

Mourning Dove Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

This week’s species dossier features a bird that is familiar and common. Over the course of my developing this dossier (established in the mid-1980’s) there seems to have been a change, with mourning doves wintering this far north with increasing frequency.

Dove, Mourning

Mourning dove

Mourning dove

Mourning doves usually live in open areas with some trees. In winter, they sometimes roost in thick evergreen plantations. They feed on the ground, picking up seeds. Nesting begins early in spring (March), with adults’ walking around, picking up sticks the first sign. Usually the first nest is in the branches of a conifer; subsequent nests may be in deciduous trees. The nest is a flimsy, loose platform of sticks. Two eggs almost always complete the clutch. Both adults incubate; early morning is a common switching time. The call is a mournful “cooweeoo, coo, coo-coo” (“bachelor song,” after literature). They produce a loud whistling of wings in flight. Generally they are not seen in northeast Illinois in winter, though occasional adults stick it out around feeders in Culver, Indiana. (Some were present all winter of 1998-9 at Willowbrook). There is a distinctive pumping of the head while walking. Mourning doves were very common in Texas, in brushlands, mountains and desert.

Mourning dove fledglings. This species lays 2 eggs per clutch.

Mourning dove fledglings. This species lays 2 eggs per clutch.

Late MY90, Hartz Lake. A mourning dove singing his bachelor song low in a tree flew off in a startle as a female sharp-shin landed in the same tree. The dove stayed within tree canopies as it flew.

27JA97. Morning. Snow fairly deep. A red-tailed hawk flew over the College of DuPage parking lot with something in its talons, pursued by half a dozen crows. The hawk perched on a flat-topped, wooden light pole and began plucking prey while crows sporadically left nearby perches and swooped at it. After 10-15 minutes it flew away, and I checked the feathers, which were scattered in singles and small clumps over a 20×30 foot area: mourning dove. Crow calls resembled owl mobbing, but smaller number of birds and less sustained.

MODO DE 3b

11MR99. First “bachelor calls” of the season at Willowbrook.

31OC01. At least 20 mourning doves, more than I have seen together in months in northeast Illinois, at a savanna area in the Nelson Lake property, Kane Co.

MODO DE 1b

18FE05. First bachelor calls of the season, Winfield Mounds.

Mourning dove incubating its nest

Mourning dove incubating its nest

30MR09. Mayslake. A pair of mourning doves has a nest in a spruce in front of the mansion. (This nest later was abandoned, possibly because of the heavy human traffic that was passing close by).

Coyote Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

I’ve been sharing smaller dossiers in recent weeks. Here is a somewhat longer one. This is a rare instance in which nearly all of my experience with a species came as an adult, in DuPage County.

Coyote

Coyote. The eyes, glowing from the flash, suggest the fearful image many suburbanites have of coyotes. They are actually relatively small animals, usually less than 30 pounds, but look bigger thanks to the long legs.

Coyote. The eyes, glowing from the flash, suggest the fearful image many suburbanites have of coyotes. They are actually relatively small animals, usually less than 30 pounds, but look bigger thanks to the long legs.

When I came to DuPage County in the early 1980’s, coyotes were known to live at Waterfall Glen and the West Chicago Prairie area. My first experiences were footprints at the Tracker Farm in New Jersey, and then a bed at the far end of a private (now destroyed) marsh in Glendale Heights, Illinois. I saw one briefly in the desert at Big Bend National Park, Texas.

30JA88. Hartz Lake area, near Monterey, Indiana. A coyote slow-loped across a dune. Front foot 2×2 inches, hind foot 2 long by 1.5 wide. The coyote loped with its body held at an angle so the front feet were on one side, hind feet on the other.

A computer rendition of the original sketch.

A computer rendition of the original sketch.

29JE89. Coyote at McKee Marsh. It stopped briefly as it came around a bend in the mowed trail and saw me coming toward it. Big ears, light build and size gave it away immediately. It held still only a couple seconds, then turned and ran. After I got around the bend I got a glimpse of movement to the right as it leaped through a tall grass meadow and ran into the forest.

19NO89. Tracking coyotes in the half inch of snow that fell last night on the McKee Marsh area. The coyotes’ activity was mainly on and around the frozen ponds. Frequent rolling, sometimes in urine. Fox tracks were absent from the wide area I walked in north Blackwell. Foxes were common there before; have coyotes driven them off? Trot the most common gait, in the diagonal position. Diagonal walk frequent, lope occasional. Prints’ actual size 2.25 long x 2 wide, 22-24 inches between corresponding track in each pair. A coyote picked up an old, small dead snake and played with it. Rolled in small amount of its urine on ice of marsh. Stopped and removed 2 burdock burs (some hairs still were attached). Coyote diagonal walk on ice 19-21.5 inches between steps. Lots of activity possibly by one individual, with lots of coming and going (small loops out and back), centering on a rotten goose egg, frozen in ice and apparently opened last night.

Diagonal trot gait, the usual pattern used by coyotes. In this case, the front feet made the right-hand tracks, the hind feet the left-hand tracks.

Diagonal trot gait, the usual pattern used by coyotes. In this case, the front feet made the right-hand tracks, the hind feet the left-hand tracks.

13DE89. Probable coyote scat, 3/4 x 3.5 inches, Hartz Lake.

16DE89. Both red foxes and coyotes present, yet, at McDowell Forest Preserve. Former about 12-16 inches between steps in walk, latter 15-20 inches.

20JA91. I saw two coyotes working together at McDowell. When first spotted they were about 20 yards apart, walking single file. I was able to approach within 60 yards on the path, then they detected me and bolted. They had been investigating a brushy area near a bridge over a small stream, they ran back north and east when escaping.

26JA92. Tracks of a coyote in woods at Hidden Lake, in an area also visited some nights by red fox. Strides were 20-inch steps compared to the fox’s 16 inches. Coyote followed deer trails sometimes.

The hind foot of a coyote, left, is smaller and has a rounder heel. The front foot, right, is larger and has a more triangular heel shape.

The hind foot of a coyote, left, is smaller and has a rounder heel. The front foot, right, is larger and has a more triangular heel shape.

28JA99. Cottontails this winter are not visible during the day. Tracks indicate they are hiding in metal drainage culverts. Coyotes occasionally vainly try to dig them out, or perhaps are trying to spook them out.

10FE99. A fresh coyote scat on the Willowbrook Nature Trail near the marsh contained both hairs and feathers, the latter from a bird in the cardinal to mourning dove size range.

Coyote scats, often deposited in the middle of trails, provide a dietary record. Either don’t handle them, or do so with disposable gloves or sticks, as they may contain parasite eggs.

Coyote scats, often deposited in the middle of trails, provide a dietary record. Either don’t handle them, or do so with disposable gloves or sticks, as they may contain parasite eggs.

25FE99. Willowbrook. Fresh snow fell yesterday evening, and reveals that 2 coyotes covered the entire preserve thoroughly last night, and more, going out into surrounding residential areas. Sometimes the coyotes were on the same route, sometimes they separated. Once they bedded down within 2 feet of one another in a dense brushy area roughly equidistant from the nature trail and residences, impossible to see by anyone more than 50 feet away.

Here a pair of coyotes traveled together, then one veered off.

Here a pair of coyotes traveled together, then one veered off.

26FE99. A coyote made a remarkable vertical 4-foot jump out of the creek at Willowbrook, having crossed to the point where the Safari Trail meets the stream at the high bank.

MR99. During the 90’s, coyotes have become much more abundant in the western suburbs. Tracks frequently encountered on the preserves, and in absence usually of fox sign until the past couple of years. One appeared at Willowbrook frequently around 1994-96, after the fox there was gone. Then the coyote vanished, after it was seen several times apparently weakened by mange. A red fox came in that winter, lasted a year, then it left. At that time coyote sign returned and have been frequent for more than two years, now. The common pattern has been for signs to be abundant for several weeks, then absent for several weeks, in alternation through the warm months, with 2 coyotes taking up steady residence on the preserve through the winter. I saw two different individuals one morning in winter of 1997-98, one missing all but a stub of its tail and so easy to recognize. They often deposit feces in the center of the nature trail, occasionally in other clear areas or smaller trails. Hair the most common dominant food remains in the scats, occasionally feathers or skins of fruits dominate. I saw a coyote crossing Kirk Road in Kane County at dusk one summer evening. Their howling, which I have heard at Pratts Wayne Woods, Hidden Lake, Lincoln Marsh and Fermilab, is extremely high-pitched and wailing in quality, and I have heard several animals howling together or howling back and forth in contact call style but not a single individual howling alone. During a night hike in September 1996 at Hidden Lake, a siren set off a probable family group of 4 individuals, and for the rest of the evening the scattered coyotes howled at regular intervals, producing the contact call effect.

Usually coyotes are shy and seldom seen.

Usually coyotes are shy and seldom seen.

14AP99. The goose nest has been destroyed, the eggs preyed upon, at Willowbrook. Tracks in mud show at least 2 coyote round trips wading out to the nest island. No other predator tracks.

25JE99. I heard a coyote barking at a neighbor walking dogs at Willowbrook.

30AU99. Coyote scats at Willowbrook have been rich in fruit. This remained the case for weeks, with fruit appearing to be the dominant food.

5OC99. A heavy red fabric strip, 10 inches long, possibly a collar, in a coyote scat on the Willowbrook Nature Trail. Fruit remains dominant food in scats.

1NO99. Hair becoming more common, fruit less, in scats at Willowbrook.

2NO99. A coyote scat at Willowbrook had a bit of candy wrapper in it (shortly after Halloween).

Half-grown coyote pup, in a meadow at Mayslake Forest Preserve.

Half-grown coyote pup, in a meadow at Mayslake Forest Preserve.

1999-2013. It has become clear that coyotes are everywhere in the Chicago area, with even centers of towns being parts of territories. The coyotes, unless someone feeds them, are very good at staying out of sight. Reports from neighbors suggest that the pair at Willowbrook had a home range that extended from the East Branch of the DuPage River to the Village Links Golf Course, and so they were absent from the preserve for weeks at a time, but in some seasons centered their activity on the preserve (they never denned there, however).

At Fullersburg Woods, the pair was active year-round in the more open northern part of the preserve and presumably extended into adjacent areas off the preserve. In winter, the pair regularly wandered into the forested southern part of the preserve, usually hunting apart but joining up as they returned to their northern center of activity. I never found a den on that preserve.

Former coyote den, Mayslake. The buried concrete had provided a stable roof, but its removal as part of the demolition process ended this den. Coyotes only use dens in late spring and early summer, to shelter their young pups.

Former coyote den, Mayslake. The buried concrete had provided a stable roof, but its removal as part of the demolition process ended this den. Coyotes only use dens in late spring and early summer, to shelter their young pups.

At Mayslake the pair had a den in the former friary garden area, but the den was destroyed as an incidental consequence of the friary demolition. Until then the coyotes were a constant presence on the preserve, but now they are there regularly but somewhat intermittently. They have been healthy and strong when I have seen them, and had pups most years. One odd observation was that one chewed up and swallowed a tennis ball discarded near the off-leash dog area. The fragmented ball passed completely through the coyote. Rabbits and voles are the more typical contents of scats.

Scat composed of tennis ball pieces.

Scat composed of tennis ball pieces.

Northern Flicker Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

The flicker was a favorite bird of my childhood; it is so unlike other woodpeckers. That’s not to say that I can offer a lengthy dissertation about them from my own experience, hence the moderate length of my dossier on them.

Flicker, Northern

Male northern flicker

Male northern flicker

This is a woodpecker of savanna and open forest. Most migrate south in winter, passing through DuPage County in large waves. They nest in tree cavities (I have seen them excavating near Lafayette, Indiana, and at Willowbrook and Meacham Grove Forest Preserves in Illinois). Nests may be near the ground or higher in trees (6 feet up at Meacham, in a 7-foot-tall stump in a clearing; 20 feet up in a large black willow at Willowbrook). Flickers frequently forage on the ground, sometimes around ant nests. They also may feed on tree trunks in usual woodpecker fashion. Their flight is strong and direct; the white rump patch is distinctive. Vocalizations are diverse: “Flicka-flicka-flicka;” “E-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e-e,” rising in volume and perhaps a little in pitch, gradually, then dropping again the last couple of notes (staccato short e’s). A “whoop-whoop-whoop” display flight sound, made by wings or voice. Alarm: flew up from ground with whooping wingbeats, and emitted a couple of loud “kleel” sounds.

27MY86. One flicker chased another quietly from perch to perch in part of a willow canopy at Willowbrook. Chasing not too vigorous, and without vocalizations. Part of courtship?

The stiff tail feathers demonstrate this is a woodpecker. It is a little too intuitive to us that females like this one lack the male’s “mustache” marks.

The stiff tail feathers demonstrate this is a woodpecker. It is a little too intuitive to us that females like this one lack the male’s “mustache” marks.

30MR87. First of year observed.

15SE87. Several in Willowbrook Back 40. Also, 2 on 25SE, 1 on 30SE, and on 19OC.

13FE88. First flicker of the year near Culver, along S.R. 110.

17MR88. First arrival at Willowbrook.

16AP88. A flicker at the Morton Arboretum displaced a red-bellied woodpecker which landed on a major branch of the same tree the larger flicker was in. It chased and displaced the red-bellied twice, and uttered a faint “flicka-flicka-flicka” series, then the red-bellied flew off.

27SE88. Still present at Willowbrook. Also seen 3OC, 6OC, and one on 11OC.

17AP89. Lots of flickers in Willowbrook’s Back 40.

17JE89. A broad-winged hawk called repeatedly, in the north end of Maple Grove. Jays, flickers and grackles were highly agitated, flickers the most continuously vocal with “keels” every 2 seconds (2 birds).

11FE90. Flicker near Hartz Lake, IN.

7OC99. Last flicker of season at Willowbrook.

21NO99. Flicker perched at edge of Fermilab along Kirk Road.

18DE99. Very late flicker at Fermilab.

17JA00. Even later flicker at Greene Valley Forest Preserve. This individual looked very dark.

29-31AU01. Flickers fairly common at Algonquin Park, Ontario. Feeding on ground, usually in groups of 2-3.

Flickers consume many ants, like other woodpeckers, but unlike them often feed on the ground.

Flickers consume many ants, like other woodpeckers, but unlike them often feed on the ground.

2005-7, Greene Valley and Tri-County. Flickers overwintering in open areas.

20AP09. Flicker drumming in W part of Mayslake savanna. Drumming relatively light but very fast.

As the dossier reveals, it took me a while to figure out that flickers winter here more regularly than I had thought. They especially like prairies and other really open areas in that season.

Rose-breasted Grosbeak Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

As usual, the dossier begins with the paragraph that established the file in the mid-1980’s. In this case I didn’t have much to say because my experience with the species was limited. Since then, dated notes have appended observations that I felt added to my understanding of the species.

Grosbeak, Rose-breasted

This species was relatively rare around my home town of Culver, Indiana. My first were a pair in my neighborhood in the town. The male sang from high in trees or TV aerials. His song began with a phrase much like the theme of the “Guestward Ho” TV series which was current then. That mnemonic has helped me recognize it elsewhere in Indiana as well as Pennsylvania and Illinois. They also have a loud “pick” call distinctive in quality from their close relative the cardinal. Foraging movements are slow, taking their time while visually searching for insects at mid to high elevations in trees. They are uncommon during the breeding season (though abundant in migration) in DuPage County, with occasional single pairs here and there in savannah-like forests. They are especially common for a couple of weeks during migration in May.

Adult male rose-breasted grosbeak

Adult male rose-breasted grosbeak

5MY87. First song of the year heard at Willowbrook Forest Preserve.

25JL87. Hartz Lake, Indiana: An adult male fed 10-15 feet up in saplings. Deliberate: about 10 seconds per perch, looking apparently over a radius of several feet, moving 2-5 feet between perches.

A male reaches for a food item. They can look very parrot-like in this maneuver.

A male reaches for a food item. They can look very parrot-like in this maneuver.

13SE87. A female was in a mixed flock with a red-eyed vireo, a Tennessee warbler, and several catbirds and robins.

7MY88. First song of the year, Culver, Indiana.

11MY88. A female was in Willowbrook Forest Preserve.

8MY89. I saw grosbeaks today and on May 6th at Willowbrook.

Singing posture

Singing posture

4MY99. First migrant noted at Willowbrook. Last observed there 14MY.

26AU99. First migrant noted at Willowbrook. Last one noted 29SE.

4SE99. A grosbeak in female plumage at Willowbrook produced “pick!” notes and bits of low-volume warbling song.

11JE00. Rose-breasted grosbeaks were in a diverse forest near Langlade, Wisconsin, associated with the Wolf River riparian edge and with savanna-like areas where trees were more scattered. Deciduous trees were abundant in those areas. Other birds in those habitats were least flycatcher, Baltimore oriole and black-throated blue warbler.

23-4SE00. Grosbeaks were numerous along the Prairie Path just east of Industrial Drive and bordering the West Chicago Prairie, in the hedge-like edges.

21MY08. Fullersburg Woods. A rose-breasted grosbeak nest was on Willow Island, midway along the east side. It was 10 feet up in the top of a buckthorn, 15 feet in from the trail, female incubating. The nest structure resembles that of the cardinal but thinner so you can see through it in places.

Raccoon Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

I am overdue to share one of my mammal dossiers. This one is relatively large. As always, the dossier is limited to my own experience. I established it in the mid-1980’s, and since have added dated notes.

Raccoon

Raccoon, Aransas NWR picnic area, Texas

Raccoons occur in a fairly wide range of habitats, though they usually live in areas with some trees and wetlands. They can be abundant in residential areas. Raccoons are nocturnal, spending the day in a hollow tree or a woodchuck burrow (alternatively, in shed, attic, or chimney). They are active all year round, though somewhat less so in winter. They avoid activity in storms or extremely cold temperatures. Sometimes they sun themselves on a branch in summer. Centers of foraging activity are garbage cans in residential areas, and ponds, streams or marshes elsewhere. Their diet is extremely broad, but features small aquatic invertebrates and vertebrates (crayfish especially favored), also fruits and insects from terrestrial areas.

Females have 1 litter of young per year, born mostly in April or early May in northeast Illinois. Young remain in the nest several weeks, then begin following the mother (father doesn’t participate in rearing). Separation begins around September. Young often remain together in 2’s or more through their first winter. The young are especially vocal, uttering a rolling chatter when interacting with one another, giving loud cries when picked up, and occasionally giving a distinctive rising whimper which may be a call for mother. In play, young bounce around with shoulders humped above stiff front legs and hair raised. This probably leads into an aggressive display of adulthood.

21DE86. A well-established trail leads from a bur oak den tree for 20m, then splits 3 ways into fainter paths. All sets of tracks visible on that trunk led away from the den tree.

Raccoons, creatures of habit with a heavy walk on flat feet, produce clear trails in winter.

15JA87. Raccoon tracks in Willowbrook Back 40 are the first sign of that species I have seen on several preserves since heavy snow fell almost a week ago. This one seemed to be trying to minimize contact with the snow by walking on logs, walking on melted patches, and bounding in open stretches where deeper snow couldn’t be avoided.

20JA87. No raccoon signs in 3 days since new snow.

9FE87. Raccoon were active in the center of the Willowbrook Back 40 last night.

3JE87. A raccoon gnawed on a rabbit hind foot in brush near the great horned owl nest, Willowbrook Forest Preserve, at mid-day. It ran off quietly as I passed, at a fast diagonal walk or a trot.

22AU87. Photo and sketch of raccoon gallop, lope. 15 inches up to next set, 16.5 inches back to previous set, which was 14 x 5.5″ and looked a little more gallop-like. The set before that (19 inches back) was a gallop, borderline bound.

Sketch of raccoon gallop

Sketch of raccoon lope

14NO87. A raccoon was dying of distemper at Winfield Mounds Forest Preserve. It was on its back, eyes crusted shut.

Canine distemper is one of the most important causes of death in northeast Illinois raccoons.

10DE87. Lots of fresh raccoon tracks are all over Willowbrook Back 40 trails, compared to only 1 fresh set of opossum tracks.

23DE87. There has been some raccoon activity in recent nights, and much opossum activity.

16JA88. Considerable raccoon action last night, which was warm. No opossum tracks.

20JA88. Lots of raccoon and opossum activity last 2 warm nights, Willowbrook. The stream was high, no crossings observed.

The flat-footed, 5-fingered raccoon footprint is distinctive.

17MY88. A raccoon was resting, perhaps sleeping, on an exposed horizontal branch near the top of a big willow, at midday.

12OC88. A raccoon was out at midday, Willowbrook Back 40 (I made several daytime observations of this animal in the rest of this month).

19DE88. 2 raccoons but no opossums were active the last 2 nights around the Back 40 Nature Trail.

Raccoons normally walk in the pace gait.

9MR89. Despite increased warmth over past 2 nights, there has been no use of trails by raccoons.

2AP89. Photos of 2 raccoons asleep in the 29-inch pin oak near the NE corner of Cactus Camp, near Hartz Lake, in Indiana. I saw the one in the hole first, didn’t see the other (in the crotch of a fork just above hole) until I looked with binoculars.

The raccoons described on April 2, 1989. These probably were siblings from the previous year, not yet breeding.

13MY89. 2 raccoons in the same sleeping places as on 2AP.

10JE90. Warrenville Grove Forest Preserve. A raccoon was active in the woods not far from the river (though at least 30 yards from it), half an hour after sunrise, foraging among Solomon’s plume in the forest. When I, standing still 15 yards away, shifted, it jumped onto a tree trunk, but I kept still in my camo sweatshirt and the raccoon resumed its foraging. Later I looked at the area. The vegetation was stepped on and disrupted, with common 2-3-inch holes, scrapes.

26JA92. Hidden Lake Forest Preserve. Raccoons were active last night (fresh snow yesterday, overnight low around 20F). I found a raccoon inside a hollow oak, at ground level, sheltered by the overhang of the leaning trunk. It looked back at me, but did nothing more.

JE99. Tracks seen at Horsethief Canyon, central Kansas.

19JA99. Willowbrook. Raccoons came out for the first time since the major snowstorm of 2JA, sometime between the 15th and today.

26JA00. In spite of the very cold previous night (subzero F), raccoons were out, at least 2 individuals moving together. This winter a group of raccoons is moving back and forth between a den high up in a dead willow near the Willowbrook bridge, and a den along the nature trail in a smaller dying willow. On the coldest nights they tend not to use the bridge willow den, which is higher up and has a larger hole which goes practically down to the bottom of the den. The trail willow den has a smaller hole, is not so exposed, and at least one animal can fit below the bottom edge of the hole. On the warmer nights, though, they seem to prefer the more spacious bridge willow den.

Raccoon skeleton. Raccoon and deer bones are the ones most frequently encountered in the field.

31JA00. A raccoon was out last night in the newly added 6 inches of snow, gait in the deep snow entirely a diagonal walk for a long distance.

4MR00. Hemlock Hill, Morton Arboretum. After a night that dropped into the 20’s, a raccoon slept in the open crotch of a large red oak, 10 feet off the ground. Now sunny, 30’s.

1AP00. While running on the Prairie Path between Butterfield and Kirk Roads, I spotted a raccoon sleeping on a large, open branch of an oak in a small wooded area beside the trail. A warm, sunny day.

30AP00. Raccoon snoozing in a dead tree trunk, largely hidden in a rotted out cavity 12 feet up and only about 20 feet from the busy main trail at Waterfall Glen (section parallel to S railroad tracks).

The raccoon skull is distinctive in its size, rounded form, and mix of canine and flattened molar teeth.

9AU00. Last night at 3am, loud cries eventually got me out of a deep sleep. Going to the window I saw a raccoon below, uttering the last of the cries. They were loud, and different from other raccoon vocalizations I have heard. The sound was sniffing or snorting, even whinnying in quality but very high pitched and sounding like a conflict or fear-driven vocalization.

28DE00. At 1:30 p.m., a raccoon was eating snow from the large upper limbs of the big, largely dead tree 40‑50 yards NNE of the Willowbrook office building (visible from the north office window). It then turned around and climbed down into the large crack on the SE corner of the trunk. This marks the 4th confirmed den on the preserve, and the 3rd winter den (the hollow catalpa behind the opossum cage in the outdoor animal exhibit is known only to have been used by a female to keep her tiny cubs in spring of this year). The deep snow that fell in mid-December has kept raccoons in their dens for more than 2 weeks.

Raccoons create communal toilets, often on elevated tree branches. This one, at the base of several joined tree trunks, shows a heavy recent diet of mulberries by the local raccoons.

13JA01. At 10:30 a.m., a large raccoon was walking a deer trail near the place where the regional trail crosses the back marsh at Herrick Lake. It seemed perfectly healthy. After a short time it left the deer trail and, with some effort, forged its own path through the still-deep snow.

26AP01. Sounds of baby raccoons coming from the same catalpa as last year at Willowbrook. (Last year she moved the 2 young to another tree when they were old enough to walk; this one has a very small entrance).

Older youngsters peek out from their den.

19MY01. A large raccoon was well exposed on the open branches of a dying oak at the Arboretum, grooming itself at 9 a.m.

21MR02. A raccoon shifted into a diagonal walk on a wet-snow hillside. Better traction? No overlap-separation between the tracks of each side. Elsewhere in flat areas, it used the pace gait.

14AP02. A female raccoon carrying a baby smaller than her head, more than 250 yards along the edge of the east side of Lake Maxinkuckee (Indiana), between 2:30 and 3:00 p.m.

2012. My notes since 2002 have been logged mainly in my natural history survey records at Willowbrook, Fullersburg and Mayslake. At Willowbrook it seemed that every year a female had her litter in a smaller den (warmer? more secure from males?), and at some point shifted them to a larger more open one. At Fullersburg I was impressed by the raccoons’ willingness to go out on very cold nights that elsewhere usually would keep them in. Even on single digit (F) nights, they routinely swam across Salt Creek rather than going the long way and taking a bridge. I started this blog at the same time my office shifted to Mayslake, and any significant observations from November 2008 on could be found by searching on “raccoon.”

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