St. James Farm is Singing

by Carl Strang

Birds poured into St. James Farm Forest Preserve in mid-May as the wave crest of neotropical migrants pushed through northern Illinois. On some days, sorting through the many songs to note visiting species was a challenge.

Not all were singing, though, for example this bald eagle that stopped in the restored stream corridor.

Not all were singing, though, for example this bald eagle that stopped in the restored stream corridor.

Blue-gray gnatcatchers are common on the preserve, and are among the earliest nesters.

Blue-gray gnatcatchers are common on the preserve, and are among the earliest nesters.

I am hoping this hooded warbler, singing among the thicketed portions of the central forest, will find a mate and nest there.

I am hoping this hooded warbler, singing among the thicketed portions of the central forest, will find a mate and nest there.

I took that photo from a distance on a foggy day, not wanting to get too close and create a disturbance.

This sharp-shinned hawk was very vocal, its calls to my ear less like those of its relative the Cooper’s hawk and more like those of a shorebird.

This sharp-shinned hawk was very vocal, its calls to my ear less like those of its relative the Cooper’s hawk and more like those of a shorebird.

At one point, heavy rains flooded the stream well beyond its banks.

The engineered restoration corridor held up well to the challenge.

The engineered restoration corridor held up well to the challenge.

Among the water-loving birds that took advantage of this temporary habitat expansion was a double-crested cormorant, here taking a break between swims.

Among the water-loving birds that took advantage of this temporary habitat expansion was a double-crested cormorant, here taking a break between swims.

After the water receded, the deposited mud interested a few late shorebird migrants, including this least sandpiper.

After the water receded, the deposited mud interested a few late shorebird migrants, including this least sandpiper.

For other birds, the breeding season is well under way.

I am not sure where this goose brood came from, but they have found the restored stream corridor to their liking.

I am not sure where this goose brood came from, but they have found the restored stream corridor to their liking.

Among my happiest observations in the second half of May has been the discovery of two eastern bluebird nests in natural cavities.

Here the male stuffs food into unseen nestlings in a bur oak cavity.

Here the male stuffs food into unseen nestlings in a bur oak cavity.

Mom takes her turn. In just a few minutes I saw each parent make 3 such feeding trips.

Mom takes her turn. In just a few minutes I saw each parent make 3 such feeding trips.

The same story was repeated in a dead tree near the stream. I am relieved that not all bluebirds are dependent upon human-provided nest boxes.

A little earlier in their own cycle, a pair of red-headed woodpeckers has been setting up shop in another dead tree.

They have settled upon the lower of the two holes beside the foreground bird.

They have settled upon the lower of the two holes beside the foreground bird. (Clicking on any photo will blow it up for better viewing).

This pair energetically repelled another pair which expressed interest in their tree. I hope the other pair also will nest at St. James Farm.

Birds in Transition

by Carl Strang

Soon the first wave of birds that overwintered in the tropics will reach northern Illinois. April has brought a transition from wintry weather to the warmth, plant growth and insects that make the trip worthwhile for the many species whose ancestors were content with tropical conditions.

For most of the month we see birds that are year-round residents or are newly arrived from their wintering grounds in the southern states. They have to deal with the season’s variability, though. Early in April a cold spell brought a thin snowfall. There still were insects to be found, but they were on or close to the ground. A selection of species foraged on the banks of the stream at St. James Farm Forest Preserve.

These included an eastern bluebird that abandoned his practice of hunting from tree branches, and shifted to hopping around in the open.

These included an eastern bluebird that abandoned his practice of hunting from tree branches, and shifted to hopping around in the open.

The preserve’s first yellow-rumped warbler of the year also searched for prey there, though such bank foraging is a common practice for that versatile species.

The preserve’s first yellow-rumped warbler of the year also searched for prey there, though such bank foraging is a common practice for that versatile species.

Even an eastern phoebe was forced to a ground-foraging interval.

Even an eastern phoebe was forced to a ground-foraging interval.

On other days, getting set for the nesting season was a priority.

Cooper’s hawks occasionally called in wooded areas, considering whether to nest at St. James Farm.

Cooper’s hawks occasionally called in wooded areas, considering whether to nest at St. James Farm.

Song sparrows sang as they began to sort out their territories.

Song sparrows sang as they began to sort out their territories.

Cardinals have been singing since January, as they are the songbirds most sensitive to day length change.

Cardinals have been singing since January, as they are the songbirds most sensitive to day length change.

Pairs of hooded mergansers hung out on ponds where there are wood duck boxes.

Pairs of hooded mergansers hung out on ponds where there are nest boxes.

The preserve’s red-tailed hawks completed their nest and were good to go.

The preserve’s red-tailed hawks completed their nest and were good to go.

A second pair of geese chose St. James Farm for nesting, but their site is a risky ridge beside the stream, with water on each side but reachable from either end by a coyote.

A second pair of geese chose St. James Farm for nesting, but their site is a risky ridge beside the stream, with water on each side but reachable from either end by a coyote.

April 21 was warm enough that the great horned owl young did not need brooding. This was my first look, and I could not be certain there was more than one.

April 21 was warm enough that the great horned owl young did not need brooding. This was my first look, and I could not be certain there was more than one baby.

And now, with the warm days forecast ahead, the big push of migrants soon will diversify the preserve’s avian picture.

 

SJF March Summary

by Carl Strang

Weather in March at St. James Farm Forest Preserve was variable, but on the whole was relatively warm with frequent rainy periods. At the beginning of the month there was a little lingering snow on the ground, and ponds were frozen, but all of this quickly was gone.

I used my old GPS unit to map my survey routes and to locate positions of previously discovered cavity trees that might harbor a great horned owl nest. One of these indeed proved to hold the nest, and the female still was present on March 25, late enough to indicate that hatched young were being brooded. Two attempts to find displaying woodcocks were unsuccessful, but during the first evening visit on March 17 I heard what I thought was a short call by a barred owl in the eastern portion of the preserve. Scott Meister reported hearing the species in the forest one evening the following week. No pileated woodpecker observations in March, but recent observations in preserves to the north along the West Branch suggest that the bird or birds seen here earlier may be wandering widely. Canada geese were down to small groups and pairs early in the month. By March 31 a nest was under incubation on the small island in the pond below the former house site.

Canada goose incubating on March 31.

Canada goose incubating on March 31.

Many killdeers were displaying in the restoration project area around the stream early in the month, but these were down to just a few individuals by month’s end. Bird activity generally increased as the season progressed, with the first cowbirds arriving March 8, a pair of hooded mergansers and 2 pairs of wood ducks present in the pond in the NW corner of the preserve for much of the month, sandhill crane flocks frequently passing overhead, a northern flicker and the first golden-crowned kinglets appearing on March 14, tree swallows on March 25, and two pairs of green-winged teals in the restored stream on March 26.

This hooded merganser pair may nest in one of the wood duck boxes at the northwest pond.

This hooded merganser pair may nest in one of the wood duck boxes at the northwest pond.

A shed antler found on March 17 in the forest near Winfield Road matched the buck photographed in the same area on November 1.

Someone found an old deer skull and propped it against a trailside tree.

Someone found an old deer skull and propped it against a trailside tree.

The first snake observed on the preserve was a midland brown snake on March 29. That same day several painted turtles were sunning in the eastern pond.

Western chorus frogs began singing on March 11, and ultimately displayed in three locations. The largest number were in the fringes of the eastern pond, and many also were in two temporary ponds in the meadow north of the entrance drive. Numbers of bullfrogs, large and small, had emerged by March 21.

One of the March 21 bullfrogs.

One of the March 21 bullfrogs.

The first butterfly of the year was a mourning cloak observed on March 21. A cabbage white appeared on March 29. The former overwinters in the adult form, the latter as a pupa. Several small brown moths were active on the forest floor on March 31. One was photographed and appears to be a tortricid, close to several similar species of Pelochrista or perhaps Eucosma.

A possible Pelochrista

A possible Pelochrista

Silver maples were blooming by March 11, and spring beauties by March 31.

Spring beauties were the first native herbaceous wildflowers to bloom at St. James Farm in 2016.

Spring beauties were the first native herbaceous wildflowers to bloom at St. James Farm in 2016.

Restoration clearing of the forest was completed by mid-March, and a new set of stakes presumably marking the new trail route was placed in the final week.

SJF February Summary

by Carl Strang

Beginning in the middle of the month, I went through all of St. James Farm Forest Preserve seeking the great horned owl nest. I did not find it, but did create an inventory of 25 large tree cavities where an incubating owl might not be visible from the ground. An additional possibility would be a hawk nest in the dense top of one of the spruces. Twice I saw an owl, presumably the male if they are nesting this year, in the same north central portion of the main forest. In past observations elsewhere, the male usually perched in the vicinity of the nest. I will continue to monitor the suspect cavities, but may need to see branched young later in the season to narrow down possibilities further.

I was able to eliminate this cavity, as it was otherwise occupied.

I was able to eliminate this cavity, as it was otherwise occupied.

Some photo processing in the computer makes the raccoon easier to see.

Some photo processing in the computer makes the raccoon easier to see.

I had not seen or heard a pileated woodpecker on the preserve for more than 6 weeks (though occasionally I heard suspicious loud, spaced tapping sounds), but in the second half of February heard or saw one on three different days. The one close sighting was of a male.

The pileated’s tongue-spear in action.

The pileated’s tongue-spear in action.

American coots and large numbers of mallards were a continuing presence on the stream. For much of the month the Canada geese roosting at Blackwell frequently passed over St. James Farm in large numbers, occasionally stopping to graze the lawns and meadow areas. Geese began to break off into pairs as ponds opened up during the last third of February. Interesting bird sightings included a bald eagle flying over, and a hermit thrush on February 16. Migrating sandhill crane flocks began to pass over beginning on the 21st. A small group of white-throated sparrows in the eastern part of the main forest were the first observed on the preserve this year. The first red-winged blackbirds arrived, and eastern bluebirds became a more consistent presence in the last part of February.

This male eastern bluebird seemed to be staking a claim in a corner of the grounds adjacent to a pair of bluebird houses.

This male eastern bluebird seemed to be staking a claim in a corner of the grounds adjacent to a pair of bluebird houses.

Fox squirrels fed heavily from Norway spruce cones in the south forest, and on tree buds elsewhere. Skunk and deer activity was much as described for January. The preserve’s deer minimally are a group of 3 does, a group of 2 deer which occasionally associate with those does, and a single buck. The snow was never deep enough to discourage raccoons. A mink used a den off the south edge of the pond in the preserve’s northwest corner.

Along the way during the owl nest search I found this curiosity.

Along the way during the owl nest search I found this curiosity.

The deer pelvic bone was well gnawed by rodents.

The deer pelvic bone was well gnawed by rodents.

The bone has been on this buckthorn twig long enough for the twig to grow several long branches.

The bone has been on this buckthorn twig long enough for the twig to grow several long branches.

The large area of restoration brush clearing in the main forest was expanded greatly by District staff, generally following the route of the new trail mapped in the preserve’s master plan. Among the more interesting plants encountered during the owl nest search were two of the most massive black walnuts I have ever seen, and a prickly-stemmed greenbrier (Smilax tamnoides).

St. James Farm January Summary

by Carl Strang

Part of my preserve monitoring practice is to write a monthly summary of observations. Today I am sharing the one from January just past:

Most of January was seasonably cold, with significant warming the last few days of the month. Little snow fell, on two occasions about an inch at a time.

Fox squirrels enjoyed the occasional sunny days, and feasted on the abundant walnuts.

Fox squirrels enjoyed the occasional sunny days, and feasted on the abundant walnuts.

Fresh snow at the beginning of the year permitted a general assessment of mammal activity in the preserve. Raccoons appear to be more abundant here than at other preserves I have monitored, with the greatest concentration of activity in the northern portion of the main forest. Skunks were surprisingly active through January, coming out even on nights when the temperature dropped into the teens. This is in contrast to other preserves, where overnight temperatures in the 30’s, at least, were required until the start of the mating season in February. A couple chipmunks also emerged from their holes, likewise unusual in mid-winter. At least one mink includes the stream and the northern portion of the main forest in its territory. Cottontails were scattered throughout, though their activity was mainly around the forest edges. A very few opossums, perhaps no more than 4-5, were active on the preserve. Meadow voles, short-tailed shrews and white-footed mice are common, and occasionally I encountered tracks of masked shrews (vole, mouse, and small shrew identifications based on habitat and regional abundance as opposed to prairie vole, deer mouse and least shrew alternative possibilities). Two domestic cats occasionally moved through the northern edge of the forest, possibly connected to the houses off the preserve’s NE corner.

This coyote caught a meadow vole shortly after I took this photo.

This coyote caught a meadow vole shortly after I took this photo.

Coyotes covered the entire preserve. Early in January I watched a slightly scruffy looking individual with much red and black in its fur catch and consume a vole in the meadow alongside the entrance drive. At the end of January, a coyote with much more of a white color dominance, very alert and fat looking, passed through the western part of the forest. Tracks revealed that two coyotes occasionally hunt together. I did not detect a consistent activity pattern in the deer. At times 4-5 moved together, that group size suggesting does. Elsewhere, single sets with the foot placement of bucks indicated at least one individual of that gender remains on the preserve.

Canada geese in DuPage County are grazers in winter.

Canada geese in DuPage County are grazers in winter.

Geese maintained a roost at south Blackwell through the month. Most mornings they flew over St. James Farm heading east, but occasionally a few dozens to a few hundred stopped and grazed the preserve’s lawns and meadows.

Part of a large goose flock feeding on a SJF lawn.

Part of a large goose flock feeding on a SJF lawn.

Over a hundred mallards utilized the newly reconfigured stream bed in the last half of January. One of them attempted to choke down a leopard frog that apparently had been unable to tunnel deep enough into the rocky stream edge when the weather turned cold in December. On another day a coot joined the ducks in the stream. The only pileated woodpecker observation during the month was one calling in the western forest on January 4.

White-breasted nuthatches are common in this preserve’s forests.

White-breasted nuthatches are common in this preserve’s forests.

Cardinals and chickadees began to sing, and downy woodpeckers to drum, in the last half of the month. There are at least 7 chickadee groups of various sizes scattered over the preserve. 1-2 adult red-tailed hawks frequently hunted the preserve’s meadows.

A red-tailed hawk scans a meadow for vole movements.

A red-tailed hawk scans a meadow for vole movements.

St. James Farm received a gratifying amount of restoration attention in January, with seeds scattered over the meadow or prairie area north of the stream, and the clearing of buckthorn and other undesirable woody plants from an extensive portion of the western forest.

 

Mayslake Birds

by Carl Strang

Bird action at Mayslake Forest Preserve has sped up to the point of being hard to follow. Migrants have been stopping by in good numbers.

Baltimore orioles are scattered through all the woodlands. Some will stay and nest.

Baltimore orioles are scattered through all the woodlands. Some will stay and nest.

Warbling vireos are another recent arrival.

Warbling vireos are another recent arrival.

Savannah sparrows haven’t nested at Mayslake yet, but one day last week the meadows and prairies were full of them.

Savannah sparrows haven’t nested at Mayslake yet, but one day last week the meadows and prairies were full of them.

I know this is a broken-record theme for me (for those of you old enough to know what that expression means), but note how in the face-on view all those head stripes converge on the bill, accentuating it for rival intimidation (maybe). I’m reminded of Maori facial tattoos.

I know this is a broken-record theme for me (for those of you old enough to know what that expression means), but note how in the face-on view all those head stripes converge on the bill, accentuating it for rival intimidation (maybe). I’m reminded of Maori facial tattoos.

This Canada goose brood appeared on Mays’ Lake.

This Canada goose brood appeared on Mays’ Lake.

On the same day, the nest in the nearby stream corridor marsh was empty, with open eggshells, almost certainly that brood’s origin.

On the same day, the nest in the nearby stream corridor marsh was empty, with open eggshells, almost certainly that brood’s origin.

The other nest, in the parking lot marsh, has been abandoned. Three unhatched eggs are visible. The highest water levels in recent rains may have reached their undersides.

The Cooper’s hawk nest is under incubation just off the preserve in a neighbor’s yard.

The Cooper’s hawk nest is under incubation just off the preserve in a neighbor’s yard.

The nest was found by Vicky S., a former student of mine who went on to mentor with some of the area’s top birders and should be regarded as one of their number at this point. There’s some satisfaction to be had in being surpassed by one’s student. She pointed out that this is an unconventional structure, the hawks having added a layer of sticks to the top of a squirrel nest.

Mayslake Marsh Update: Birds

by Carl Strang

Mayslake Forest Preserve’s marshes have awakened as the thaw has come and the water slowly warms.

This mallard pair was more than ready, resting on a muskrat house in March with the ice still around them.

This mallard pair was more than ready, resting on a muskrat house in March with the ice still around them.

We are seeing two Canada goose nests on the preserve this year, as females are incubating atop muskrat houses.

One in the stream corridor marsh

One in the stream corridor marsh

Another in the parking lot marsh

Another in the parking lot marsh

Meanwhile, the migration season continues.

A few blue-winged teal have been stopping by the marsh. This duck has not yet nested at Mayslake.

A few blue-winged teal have been stopping by the marsh. This duck has not yet nested at Mayslake.

Yet another case of a face-on bird’s markings accentuating the bill, possibly making it more intimidating in an agonistic face-off.

Yet another case of a face-on bird’s markings accentuating the bill, possibly making it more intimidating in an agonistic face-off.

This coot spent a day in the parking lot marsh.

This coot spent a day in the parking lot marsh.

Soon the migration focus will shift to the woodlands, as the neotropical migrants are on their way.

 

Some Mayslake Birds

by Carl Strang

It seemed the ideal situation. Muskrats had built an enormous mounded den in the center of the parking lot marsh at Mayslake Forest Preserve, and it was a sure bet that it would platform a Canada goose nest in the spring. Sure enough.

A female incubating her nest on April 15.

A female incubating her nest on April 15.

Something happened. The nest was abandoned before incubation was completed. The water is deep, and it’s hard to imagine a coyote making that swim for so small a return. The story wasn’t over, though, as a second attempt was underway by early June.

The same pair? Cannot say, but there was a new nest under incubation by June 3.

The same pair? Cannot say, but there was a new nest under incubation by June 3.

This was very late, but still there would be plenty of time to get young flying by fall. The result, however, was the same.

By June 24 the nest had been abandoned. The eggs appear to be intact.

By June 24 the nest had been abandoned. The eggs appear to be intact.

To close on a more positive note, I will share some recent portraits of Mayslake’s other birds.

Green herons have been regulars in the marshes and lakes.

Green herons have been regulars in the marshes and lakes.

A red-winged blackbird carries lunch for her nestlings.

A red-winged blackbird carries lunch for her nestlings.

A single common yellowthroat is all I’ve been hearing on the preserve.

A single common yellowthroat is all I’ve been hearing on the preserve.

This cedar waxwing thoughtfully lifted its crest as I aimed the camera.

This cedar waxwing thoughtfully lifted its crest as I aimed the camera.

Mayslake Bird Action

by Carl Strang

Bird news, like the spring, has been slow in coming to Mayslake Forest Preserve this year. One of our earliest migrants to appear is the red-winged blackbird.

The males usually show up in February, but they did not arrive at Mayslake until well into March this year.

The males usually show up in February, but they did not arrive at Mayslake until well into March this year.

A safe bet was that the large muskrat lodge that sheltered a couple of the rodents through the winter in the center of the parking lot marsh would have a goose nest on it this spring.

This location should be secure from coyotes.

This location should be secure from coyotes.

A week later it was empty, a basking spot for a large snapping turtle. I do not know when incubation began, and so cannot give a likelihood that the nest was successful.

A week later it was empty, a basking spot for a large snapping turtle. I do not know when incubation began, and so cannot give a likelihood that the nest was successful.

A single red-tailed hawk has been hunting the preserve. Its mate no doubt is on a nest somewhere, but if it’s at Mayslake I haven’t found it, yet.

Keeping an eye on things

Keeping an eye on things

Residents, like the downy woodpecker, no longer are keeping the quiet low profile they maintained through the winter.

This one checks out a staghorn sumac stem in the north savanna.

This one checks out a staghorn sumac stem in the north savanna.

Another resident, a white-breasted nuthatch, pauses between bouts of courtship.

Another resident, a white-breasted nuthatch, pauses between bouts of courtship.

The later early-season migrants were abundant last week.

Yellow-rumped warblers actively foraged in Mayslake’s woodlands.

Yellow-rumped warblers actively foraged in Mayslake’s woodlands.

Soon we can expect the floodgates to open and the air will be filled with diverse migrants’ songs.

Canada Goose Dossier

by Carl Strang

Over the weekend I realized that I forgot to resume my winter practice of sharing my species dossiers. Better late than never, I guess. The idea here is to keep a record of everything one knows of a species from personal experience, apart from the literature or other second-hand reports. It is a discipline that supports a practice of observation, and when I first set these up in the 1980’s I was embarrassed to find how little I could write for many common species. The dossier begins with that introductory paragraph, followed by dated notes from subsequent years. Date codes take this form: 6MR14, where the first number is the date, followed by a two-letter unique month code and the year. Though the cackling goose more recently has been recognized as a separate species, such was not the case when I was in Alaska, so I combine them with Canada geese here.

Goose, Canada

A pair of Canada geese

A pair of Canada geese

I know Canada geese principally from observations in western Alaska (cackling Canada goose) and DuPage County, IL (giant Canada goose). They migrate in large flocks through Culver, IN, occasionally using the center of Lake Maxinkuckee as a nighttime roost, and staying several days. Pairs stay together year round, and their brood of young remain with them through its first winter. Several thousands overwinter in DuPage County, roosting at Amoco Research Center and Fermilab. In spring, McKee Marsh is a major site. They nest on small islands whenever possible. The nest is built on the ground, of grass lined with a down and grass mixture. The male stands guard while female incubates. The young leave the nest when fully dry, the day after they hatch. Goslings eat small insects, sedge and grass seeds when very young, graze when older. The peeping cry of young can remain well into fall, when their plumage is similar to adults.’ Corn and other grains, as well as grass stems, are popular adult foods. They have a loud honking flight, or “nervous” call, higher pitched in the smaller cackler and other tundra subspecies. The pair’s duet “song” of similar notes is performed on territory. Stranger adult and older young are kept away by the adults. Cackler broods wander after the hatch, but usually remain in the general vicinity of the nest. The eggs are white, becoming yellowish stained over time. V formations and higher altitudes are used in longer flights. Cacklers covered nests and snuck off sometimes. At Kokechik Bay, their nests were concentrated in a zone 0.75-1.25 mile from the edge of bay, in taller lowland tundra vegetation than brant.

Data on cackling Canada goose nests, 1971. All but 2 females flushed from a distance of more than 20 meters. The nearest water to the nest ranged 2-80 feet, all but 3 within 5 feet. Vegetation height around the nest ranged 3-10 inches, all but 4 less than 6 inches. The nest interior diameter ranged 4-6.25 inches, median 5 inches. The outer diameter ranged 5×16 to 9.5×19 inches. Nest depth ranged 2-4 inches. Clutch sizes were 2, 3, 4, 4, 4, 4, 4, 5, 5, 5, 6 and 7. Egg widths ranged 43.4-52.3 mm, and egg length ranged 63.0-79.8 mm.

Nests often are constructed on old nests from earlier years. Cackling geese usually saw me approaching from a very great distance, at least partly covering nest and departing before I discovered it.

Here are migrant cackling and Canada geese, side by side for size comparison.

Here are migrant cackling and Canada geese, side by side for size comparison.

19AP87. McKee Marsh, Blackwell Forest Preserve. Territorial encounter with males curving necks and bringing chins in contact with surface of water. Roaring, hoarse calls of males backed by higher-pitched hoots of females. Larger pair pushed back smaller. Sometimes larger male turned toward his female, then back toward other pair. Both pairs rested within 8 feet of one another for a while, preening immediately after the encounter. When retreating, smaller pair kept themselves low in the water, seemed to ignore larger pair and did not call or display, simply swam away from them.

Canada goose incubating a nest on a muskrat house

Canada goose incubating a nest on a muskrat house

18MR99. A pair of Canada geese stayed around the island in the Willowbrook marsh all week (eventually nested).

12AP99. The Willowbrook geese are on the nest.

14AP99. The goose nest has been destroyed, the eggs preyed upon, at Willowbrook. Tracks in mud show at least 2 coyote round trips wading out. No other predator tracks.

16AP99. The goose pair continues to stay close to their nest site (also there as late as 3MY; never did renest).

Canada goose pair with goslings

Canada goose pair with goslings

29AP11. Mayslake. A pair of Canada geese with 2 goslings crossed the isthmus from Trinity to May’s Lake, settled onto one of the south side lawns. This was not the pair nesting on a muskrat house in the parking lot marsh; that nest still is under incubation. That pair is different from the pair that successfully brought 4 goslings to the lake last year and got 2 to fledging; the male in last year’s pair was banded. They showed up, without their goslings, in February but later were absent.

Winter roost, Hidden Lake Forest Preserve

Winter roost, Hidden Lake Forest Preserve

(Additional observations have been the subject of blog posts, and can be accessed by using the blog’s search feature with the species’ name).

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