SJF March Summary

by Carl Strang

Weather in March at St. James Farm Forest Preserve was variable, but on the whole was relatively warm with frequent rainy periods. At the beginning of the month there was a little lingering snow on the ground, and ponds were frozen, but all of this quickly was gone.

I used my old GPS unit to map my survey routes and to locate positions of previously discovered cavity trees that might harbor a great horned owl nest. One of these indeed proved to hold the nest, and the female still was present on March 25, late enough to indicate that hatched young were being brooded. Two attempts to find displaying woodcocks were unsuccessful, but during the first evening visit on March 17 I heard what I thought was a short call by a barred owl in the eastern portion of the preserve. Scott Meister reported hearing the species in the forest one evening the following week. No pileated woodpecker observations in March, but recent observations in preserves to the north along the West Branch suggest that the bird or birds seen here earlier may be wandering widely. Canada geese were down to small groups and pairs early in the month. By March 31 a nest was under incubation on the small island in the pond below the former house site.

Canada goose incubating on March 31.

Canada goose incubating on March 31.

Many killdeers were displaying in the restoration project area around the stream early in the month, but these were down to just a few individuals by month’s end. Bird activity generally increased as the season progressed, with the first cowbirds arriving March 8, a pair of hooded mergansers and 2 pairs of wood ducks present in the pond in the NW corner of the preserve for much of the month, sandhill crane flocks frequently passing overhead, a northern flicker and the first golden-crowned kinglets appearing on March 14, tree swallows on March 25, and two pairs of green-winged teals in the restored stream on March 26.

This hooded merganser pair may nest in one of the wood duck boxes at the northwest pond.

This hooded merganser pair may nest in one of the wood duck boxes at the northwest pond.

A shed antler found on March 17 in the forest near Winfield Road matched the buck photographed in the same area on November 1.

Someone found an old deer skull and propped it against a trailside tree.

Someone found an old deer skull and propped it against a trailside tree.

The first snake observed on the preserve was a midland brown snake on March 29. That same day several painted turtles were sunning in the eastern pond.

Western chorus frogs began singing on March 11, and ultimately displayed in three locations. The largest number were in the fringes of the eastern pond, and many also were in two temporary ponds in the meadow north of the entrance drive. Numbers of bullfrogs, large and small, had emerged by March 21.

One of the March 21 bullfrogs.

One of the March 21 bullfrogs.

The first butterfly of the year was a mourning cloak observed on March 21. A cabbage white appeared on March 29. The former overwinters in the adult form, the latter as a pupa. Several small brown moths were active on the forest floor on March 31. One was photographed and appears to be a tortricid, close to several similar species of Pelochrista or perhaps Eucosma.

A possible Pelochrista

A possible Pelochrista

Silver maples were blooming by March 11, and spring beauties by March 31.

Spring beauties were the first native herbaceous wildflowers to bloom at St. James Farm in 2016.

Spring beauties were the first native herbaceous wildflowers to bloom at St. James Farm in 2016.

Restoration clearing of the forest was completed by mid-March, and a new set of stakes presumably marking the new trail route was placed in the final week.

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Dark-eyed Junco Species Dossier

by Carl Strang

We’ll soon say goodbye, for the summer, to our most familiar snowbirds, the dark-eyed juncos. Here are my notes on the species. This probably will also be the last dossier until next winter.

Junco, Dark-eyed

Dark-eyed junco

Dark-eyed junco

1986 initial summary: Juncos are common late fall, winter and early spring residents around Culver and West Lafayette, Indiana, south central Pennsylvania, and DuPage County, Illinois. They usually travel in flocks, and can be seen in any habitat. They have a follow-me signal in the form of white outer tail feathers that contrast with the dark central ones. They eat seeds, and feed almost exclusively on the ground or on elevated flat platforms in winter. The call note is 1 to 3 syllables (often 3): chi’-bi-dit’ (short I’s), very quick and chittering.

4OC86. First lone individual of fall, stayed around the Warrenville, Illinois, back yard for much of the day.

1987. Juncos still were present at Willowbrook on 6AP, and were singing by 16MR (trilling song), gone by 27AP.

24SE87. First juncos of fall have arrived, Morton Arboretum.

14MR88. Juncos maintain a constant chatter, foraging on and near ground, of minute twitters, trills, and complex combinations of soft notes, occasionally interacting more directly with little scuffles when one encroaches on another’s bit of feeding ground.

17MR88. Juncos singing a lot, Willowbrook Back 40.

20MR88. In east Meacham Grove, a large junco flock, as at Willowbrook very noisy with assorted twitterings, chasing, some singing. Birds were on the ground, in bushes and in trees.

21MR88. Willowbrook Back 40. Some juncos kick like fox sparrows, but not so loudly.

Spring 88. Flocks still present 30MR, gone by 5AP, a few individuals still present 8AP.

15OC88. First juncos of fall, at Red Oak Nature Center (near Batavia, IL).

Juncos most commonly are seen on the ground.

Juncos most commonly are seen on the ground.

18NO88. Willowbrook Back 40. I was watching a flock of juncos and listening to birdlife in general when a sharp-shin flew over, north to south. There was silence from the time it came into view to the time it passed from view. The juncos remained absolutely still, their twitterings and flutterings resuming after the hawk was gone. That hawk must have a quiet view of the world, just as police see orderly traffic when in their patrol cars.

9MR89. Juncos starting to sing, Willowbrook.

21MR89. Willowbrook Back 40. Considerable social activity on this clear but very cool day, among juncos. Some vigorous chasing, and in one case two birds feeding on ground close together, in what seemed to be a synchronized way. They appeared to be male and female. Warming up for start of breeding season? (Have been singing off and on for weeks, now).

21OC89. First junco of fall seen at West DuPage Woods Forest Preserve.

24SE91. First junco of fall seen at Willowbrook.

19FE99. Juncos starting to insert bits of song into their calls.

11MR99. Junco song a trill, sometimes varying in speed and with small chirps sometimes added before or after. Trill a bit more musical than the call. This morning at Willowbrook there are many juncos on the preserve, especially along the creek north of the bridge. They are foraging mainly up in the trees, also singing and chasing one another.

17MR99. Today another wave of juncos at Willowbrook. Some are appearing in places where I haven’t seen them all winter, so I’m inclined to regard them as new birds, migrants drifting north. Very active, like those on the 11th.

11OC99. First junco arrived at Willowbrook.

29JA00. Juncos along with Brewer’s blackbirds and others are at Fermilab buffalo feeders picking up spillage.

5FE00. Juncos common along roadsides near Culver.

22FE00. Willowbrook. First junco songs of the year (2 individuals).

10MR00. Willowbrook. Juncos singing regularly now. Today one fed from an open silver maple flower cluster.

13AP00. Willowbrook. Several juncos still present, have been there daily.

9MR01. This is the first day I’ve observed both singing and much chasing and other play-territorial behavior by juncos this year. A couple singers earlier in the season. It’s a much colder spring than last year, and there have been fewer juncos on the Willowbrook preserve.

30AU01. Juncos are in small groups at Algonquin Park, Ontario, usually associated with hemlock groves.

5OC10. Mayslake. Heard the first juncos of the season.

Fox Squirrel Dossier

by Carl Strang

This week’s species dossier is one of my larger ones.

Fox Squirrel

Fox squirrels are distinguished from our other common tree squirrel, the gray squirrel, by the reddish tones in the tail and belly.

This is a squirrel of woodlands and residential areas with trees. The fox squirrel is the only large tree squirrel of the Culver, Indiana, area. They nest in tree cavities or in leaf nests; some used leaf nests all winter at Willowbrook Forest Preserve, Illinois. Nest building involves cutting of leafy branch-ends. A leaf nest in cross section is made of those leafy twigs, woven into a framework of thicker sticks, with a fresh leafy lining. Overall it has a very thick wall with small insulated cavity within.

Squirrel nests are approximately the diameter of a basketball.

Fox squirrels feed on the ground and in trees. They begin to eat acorns and hickory nuts in August when those still are green. Hickory nuts and acorns are consumed in treetops, especially early in morning and late in afternoon, resulting in a distinctive rain of fragments as hulls are gnawed away. Squirrels (gray squirrels?) also ate black gum fruits in Pennsylvania on Reineman Sanctuary in late fall. Generally they open large nuts (hickory, walnuts) neatly, prying them open on the seams.

Fox squirrel with a pair of shagbark hickory nuts.

They also bury individual acorns, nuts, black cherry pits, etc., in the fall. Distinctive burying site goes into earth at a 45 degree angle or a little shallower, producing an oval shaped bare soil excavation site about 1×2 inches (wider than tall) in soft soil, smaller in hard soil. Mushrooms also are on the fall food list near Culver. Diet in early winter emphasizes excavated nuts buried earlier.

Squirrel tracks, right, follow a winding course as the animal sniffed for a buried nut. On the left is the hole where it excavated one.

Twigs and bark, e.g. of elm, eaten occasionally in mid- and late winter. Buds, e.g. of maple, are added as those expand in spring. Developing elm seeds are heavily consumed in May in DuPage County, generally twigs are cut and seeds eaten from them. Occasionally they gnaw bones.

Fox squirrel eating buds in spring.

Fox squirrels have two breeding seasons, typically, in spring and fall, with 2-5 young per litter. Young began to appear at the Willowbrook Wildlife Center hospital in mid-March (born mid-late February) and mid-August (born late July or early August). Young normally begin to emerge from the nest in May or late September. Young play in vigorous chasing and hiding games on tree trunks and in branches, occasionally extended onto the ground. Adults sometimes play as well, also tease dogs. Leap between trees. They use suspended wires as tightropes between trees and over roads.

These could be fox or gray squirrel footprints.

Tree squirrel tracks are distinctive, the 5-toed hind footprints about 1.25 inches long, with 3 parallel middle toes close together, pointing forward, and outer toes pointing out at angles. The 4-toed front footprints show more spread and independence of toes. The traveling gait typically is a gallop, with front feet leaving ground before back feet land. The back feet are side by side, as are the front feet. Slowing down causes front feet to get closer and closer to back footprints, until one or both front footprints are in front of the back feet. Acceleration also begins with a set of footprints showing the bound gait. Squirrels sniffing slowly over the ground sometimes use the diagonal walk. Fox squirrels show considerable ingenuity and acrobatic ability in overcoming bird feeder protections.

Early spring 1986, Taft Campus of Northern Illinois University, north central IL, with snow still on ground. A fox squirrel, opportunistically foraging in a temporary meltwater stream, looked much healthier than the many gray squirrels fastidiously foraging on the wet-snow-covered hillside nearby.

24NO86. Squirrel began to go onto a branch with 2 great horned owls. The squirrel stopped, tail twitching, sat still for a while, then backed and started to go on a branch over the owls’ heads. They were watching it. Finally it turned around and ran down the tree.

12DE86. Puffer Lake, Morton Arboretum, IL. Fox or gray squirrel tracks in snow that fell yesterday afternoon, on ice among cattails at edge of lake. The tracks were made early this morning. Diagonal walk first 7 feet onto ice, then slow gallop gait.

Fox squirrel, winter.

14MR87. Fox squirrel eating cherry and elm buds at Maple Grove Forest Preserve.

30AP87. Fox squirrel feeding heavily, frenetically, on large green silver maple fruits (seeds only; dropping wings). Also on 1MY, 8:30 a.m. both days.

4MY87. Squirrel-cut elm twigs with fragments of seeds on ground.

6MY87. Early evening, a fox squirrel feeding in an elm top at Willowbrook. Mostly clipped twigs first, then stripped them of seeds, and finally dropped them. The squirrel removed more foliage in 3 minutes than a noctuid caterpillar would in its entire life.

18DE87. 4 days after an abrupt 1-foot snowfall, little but rabbit and squirrel tracks can be seen in the Willowbrook Back 40. The latter are relatively few, restricted to woods.

25MY88. A squirrel when being stealthy carries his tail behind him like the cloak on a figure in an old novel.

This one looks pregnant.

29MY88. Fox squirrel numbers at Hartz Lake (in Indiana) appear limited by hickories. The few squirrels I’ve seen to date have been in parts of woods where hickories are (may simply be a preference, if hunters are keeping numbers low).

20SE88. A fox squirrel nest came into Willowbrook from Lombard with 3 young. The nest was made of leafy elm twigs, with grasses and a work glove toward the center. Overall shape was like an urn, with branches interwoven to nearly cover the entrance. Couldn’t tell for sure whether the entrance was on top or side. Nest blown out of tree by storm.

27JL89. Fox squirrel still feeding heavily on red half-ripe mulberries at Willowbrook after purple ripe ones have been available more than 1 month.

10MR90. Warrenville Grove Forest Preserve. Fox squirrel lunges up tree when climbing, pushing with all four feet at once. Toes catch in cracks, don’t appear to slip although a slight adjustment with a foot may be made now and then before the next lunge.

24JL90. Fox squirrel still eating mulberries.

15NO90. Willowbrook. A fox squirrel eating catalpa seeds right out of the pod, and letting the wings fall.

13JA92. Fox squirrel eating box elder buds, Willowbrook.

22AP95. Midafternoon, Warrenville Grove Forest Preserve. 2 fox squirrels feeding heavily on American elm buds in a 6″dbh tree.

13OC96. 3 fox squirrels in full bark, simultaneously, in Mom and Dad’s Culver front yard. A large cat was their target. They were turned so their bodies pointed in its direction and they were focused, looking straight at the cat.

Not a hibernator, the fox squirrel remains active all winter.

19FE99. Fox squirrel eating expanding silver maple buds, Willowbrook.

4MR99. At mid-day a gray squirrel emerged from a hole in a large, dead willow at Willowbrook to drive away an approaching fox squirrel. The gray immediately returned to the hole.

20AP99. Fox squirrel feeding on buds or expanding leaves of a black cherry tree with leaves much more expanded than those of other cherries at Willowbrook.

28AP99. Willowbrook. Fox squirrel eating silver maple seeds.

13OC99. Willowbrook. Young fox squirrel out of nest. Another fox squirrel eating box elder seeds.

21OC99. Willowbrook. Several fox squirrels gathering walnuts.

Synchronized acorn-eating team, Mayslake savanna.

27OC99. Fox and gray squirrels both are active. The former have been eating nuts in recent days, one this morning in a box elder eating seeds, another appearing to work on a broken down old nest.

28OC99. Gray squirrel with nut, fox squirrel eating box elder seeds.

1NO99. Willowbrook again. Fox squirrel eating box elder seeds.

17NO99. A gray squirrel (young) and a fox squirrel both eating box elder seeds at Willowbrook.

2DE99. Several gray squirrels and 1 fox squirrel foraging on the ground.

30DE99. Fox squirrel at Willowbrook building leaf nest 15 feet up in a buckthorn in a tall-brush area. Taking leaves from nearby small oak that had not dropped many of them.

2FE00. A fox squirrel carried a ball of snow up onto a branch and ate from it.

14FE00. Many gray and fox squirrels this winter in nests only 12‑14 inches outer diameter at Willowbrook.

25FE00. Willowbrook, afternoon. 2 fox squirrels eating buds from a mulberry tree rich in witches’ brooms. Temperature 70F.

2MR00. Willowbrook. 2 fox squirrels sharing a hole in the trunk of a large willow, 1 of them adding leaves picked up from the ground.

Grooming the fur.

4MR00. A gray and 2 fox squirrels feeding on the expanding buds of an American elm near the Joy Path of Morton Arboretum. As I left the path to approach the tree to identify it, the gray squirrel immediately left and ran to other trees. As I walked up to the trunk, the lower of the fox squirrels finally left, but the higher one remained.

15MR00. Willowbrook. Fox squirrel nest high in the very top of a red oak across the exhibit trail from the eagle cage (occupant barked at another fox squirrel lower in tree). A fox squirrel eating expanding sugar maple buds.

13AP00. A fox squirrel feeding on expanding sugar maple buds, Willowbrook.

19AP00. Willowbrook. 2 fox squirrels eating expanding sugar maple buds.

7MY00. West DuPage Woods F.P. 2 fox squirrels clipping American elm twig ends and eating the nearly ripened seeds, then dropping the twigs with leaves.

1JA02. A fox squirrel at the Arboretum eating honey locust seeds from a thornless tree on a very cold day. Sometimes it ate individual seeds from the pod attached to the tree, sometimes removed entire pods and took the seeds from them.

This fox squirrel was mobbed by a pair of Baltimore Orioles in June of 2009 until it left their nest tree.

5OC10. Mayslake. A fox squirrel chased a gray squirrel on the ground in the south savanna.

27JA11. Mayslake. Fox squirrels feeding in thornless honey locust in south (former) friary grounds, presumably getting seeds from pods.

1DE11. Fox squirrel eating honey locust seeds from pod on ground.

Lessons from Travels: Australian Flowering Trees

by Carl Strang

The focus of this blog is the natural history of northeast Illinois and northwest Indiana. This year’s winter series, which probably will spill into next winter, brings out lessons I have learned about our region during travel experiences in other places. Previous winter series have focused on science and spirituality (The Winter Campfire series, two years ago) and the prehistoric life and geological history of our region (last year’s Prehistoric Life series).

Today’s topic is the startling contrast between reproductive strategies of our trees and those of Australia, one of many lessons I learned in my 5-week vacation Down Under in late 2000. Nearly all of our trees are wind pollinated.

This silver maple is an example.

The flowers are unspectacular, because the trees put their energy into sending out volumes of pollen to drift on the breezes, so that a tiny portion of the grains by chance will land on female flowers of the same species and pollinate them. In Australia, most of the trees have showy flowers.

Flowers of one of the many eucalypt trees that dominate Australia’s woodland floras.

Flowers are showy not to impress us (though we certainly breed plants to enhance floral qualities we like), but rather to attract the attention of animals, which in the process of feeding on nectar and pollen actively carry some of the pollen from plant to plant. In Australia the most conspicuous pollinators are birds.

Here one of the dozens of species of honeyeaters approaches a passion fruit flower in the Alice Springs Desert Park, easily the most creatively interpreted zoo I have ever visited.

Honeyeaters come in a wide range of sizes and colors. The small ones are reminiscent of our wood warblers in their colors, diversity, and small size. Ecologically they are quite different, their tongues equipped with brushes to help them exploit floral resources. They supplement that diet with insects and fruits to different degrees. There also are larger honeyeaters, including the odd looking wattlebirds and friarbirds.

One of the friarbirds, which have patches of bare, pigmented skin around their heads and necks to help release excess heat.

On my second day in Australia I parked my rental car at a roadside rest stop in Tasmania, where a large eucalypt was flowering.

The tree bore an abundance of blooms.

It was noisy with birds drawn to its new flowers.  Not only were there two species of wattlebirds, but also musk lorikeets.

Here is a related parrot, the red-collared lorikeet, likewise interested in flowers of a tree, at Kakadu National Park in the Northern Territory.

The main lesson here was the rich addition to Australia’s avifauna, as well as to the beauty of the trees, made possible by the evolutionary channeling of most of the trees into mutualistic partnerships with the birds. Our trees succeed instead by the more independent means of wind pollination. There probably is more than one underlying factor influencing this difference. The greater diversity of trees in tropical areas, possibly extending throughout Australia’s relatively mild climate zone, means the individual trees of each species are fewer, and more widely scattered, reducing the effectiveness of wind pollination and increasing the need for animal vectors. The mild climate also makes it easier for diverse animal pollinators to remain in an area throughout the year. Most of our wind-pollinated trees bloom in early spring, before the trees leaf out, when wind is able to move through their canopies better and carry pollen from plant to plant more effectively.

Spring Ooching In, Part 2

by Carl Strang

Yesterday I marked the physical advance of the spring season. There also have been plenty of biological signs. Sandhill cranes have been coming over on days with south winds.

Sandhill cranes are a favorite of all the Mayslake staff.

Silver maples have been flowering for more than a week.

This photo is from an earlier year.

The woodpeckers have been drumming like crazy.

This downy woodpecker found a particularly resonant sounding board.

Two days ago I saw Mayslake’s first bluebird of the year.

The bluebird appropriately was foraging in the middle of the north savanna.

Finally, yesterday the first chorus frogs started singing.

The years should have taught me patience by now. But spring ooches its way in, slowly warming, then backing off in another cold spell. I need to come up with an inquiry to keep me focused in this season, but the dreary month of March stifles my creativity. For someone who doesn’t believe in the reality of time, I certainly remain aware of its slow passage. But warm days like we’ve had this week are a soothing reminder of the season to come.

Eastern Cottontail Dossier

by Carl Strang

My species dossiers focus on vertebrate animals, and as there are many more birds than other terrestrial vertebrates, most of the dossiers I have shared had avian subjects. Today’s focus is a mammal.

Cottontail, Eastern

These live in weedy and brushy habitat. Occasionally enter forests, especially in fall and winter. Maintain a network of trails and runs. Have aboveground forms or beds used for much of the year, but take cover in sheltered spots (in firewood pile at Warrenville, IL, for instance, during daytime in a neighborhood with little cover) and in burrows (woodchuck burrows at Culver’s fish ponds, skunk burrow at Willowbrook), and culverts. Predators may influence this: in winter of 1998-99, cottontails seldom appeared in the open, but coyotes were omnipresent and often dug at ends of drainage culverts under the nature trail, where rabbit tracks led.

Cottontail nest, opened slightly to show hairless infant.

Young born blind and hairless. Nest in short grass areas (e.g., lawns, examples seen at Boiling Springs, PA, and in IL), in shallow depression lined and covered with a mix of fur and grass. Nest well hidden. Young become independent when about 4 inches long, when ears stand up and fur becomes shaggy. Mother simply abandons nest (normally she visits it only at night), young find their way out. Observed a youngster at Lombard, IL, learning to recognize food. Sniffed every plant, occasionally nibbling one, occasionally chewing one down to ground. Can be tame and easily caught first day or two out of nest.

Summer food green plants, for instance dandelions (watched one at Boiling Springs, PA, as it ate fruiting stalks, biting them off near ground then nibbling them into mouth endwise, seed poofing out as it reached the end). Browses in winter. In DuPage County, rose family preferred (or at least eaten first, then when other foods depleted, larger rose and Rubus stems cut to bring twig ends within reach), others eaten include twigs of maple, elm, bittersweet Solanum dulcamara, poison ivy (the last toward winter’s end). Patches of red to orange urine at this time. Bark of cherry, elm, sumac, taken in leaner winters.

Often the toenail marks are the only clear indicators of a cottontail track. The furry feet do not make a clear impression in hard soil.

Droppings distinctive, round. Tracks occasionally show the 4 nailed toes in good conditions. Hard substrates sometimes reveal 4 toenail marks in wedge shaped pattern. In snow, typically nothing more than round depressions for front feet, elongate ones for hind feet. Rarely anything but a gallop gait with one front foot in front of the other.

16AP86. Rabbits eating gray dogwood bark in Willowbrook Back 40, both of standing shrubs and of stems I cut earlier this week.

9JL86. Watched a half-grown cottontail through the window at Willowbrook as it grazed. Seemed to select younger grass blades (pointed rather than mower-cut; lighter in color).

9FE87. Inside Willowbrook main building, cottontail escaped from intensive care room during night. Droppings and smears of dust suggest that it got into the clinic, somehow got up onto 3 foot high counter top, then another 4 feet up to cabinet top. [I asked Tom Brown about this; he has seen even higher vertical leaps onto ledges by cottontails].

This is the cottontail that escaped in the Willowbrook Wildlife Center hospital and hid by jumping from the floor to the countertop, then from the countertop to the top of the wall cabinet.

12FE87. Cottontail recently gnawed on crabapple beside trail.

15MR87. Meacham Grove. Rabbit moving fast, but turning: the space between the front feet and hind feet decreased as it approached the turning point, revealing a slight deceleration; the front feet pointed in the direction it had been going, then the hind feet pointed in the new direction. This rabbit placed its front feet side by side. The distance between the front and hind tracks was not related to the distance of the leap: large and small for long and short hops. I tracked this rabbit to its hiding place, partly under a log in open woods. I had passed within 8 feet of him twice, then stood 3 feet away for at least 2 minutes puzzling over tracks that seemed to go into there but not out, when he burst from hiding and ran away. The rabbit had climbed up on sticks and logs a few times (crossways to his route).

A typical cottontail footprint pattern with the more elongate hind footprints side by side, rounder front footprints one before the other. In each step the hind feet carry past the front feet.

MY87, NJ Pine Barrens. Cottontail browsing blueberries, oaks.

AU87, NJ Pine Barrens. Cottontails smaller here than elsewhere.

12AU87. Assateague Island, morning. Young cottontail eating clovers (several patches well nibbled, English plantain flower stalks, a wiry upright narrow-leafed composite, and another plant that resembled common ragweed. Avoided the abundant Senecio. Had several ticks in its ears, and appeared to have a partial cataract in the right eye.

18DE87. 4 days after an abrupt 1-foot snowfall, little but rabbit and squirrel tracks in Willowbrook Back 40. Former’s mainly at edge of field and woods.

23JA88. McDowell Forest Preserve. Rabbits and foxes highly active last night (an inch of snow fell just after sunset). One rabbit, at least, was in underground burrow during snow. Unusual amount of side-by-side front foot placement by rabbits: slippery or uncertain new surface? One rabbit fed on grasses, edge of a tall grass field.

On slippery or unfamiliar surfaces (e.g., the first snow of the season), cottontails often lock their front feet together side by side. I assume this gives them more stability. You can see in the dossier text when I discovered this.

27JA88. Willowbrook. A rabbit had moved along left edge of path, paused and looked back down path over right shoulder. Both front feet to right of their usual position and pivoted, right foot 45 degrees. This is enough to allow the rabbit to look behind it (eyes on sides of head).

28JA88. Willowbrook. A rabbit did heavy browsing on a rose bush last night.

3FE88. Willowbrook. In the 2 nights since the last snow, not real cold, lots of activity. Rabbits, squirrels, mice, fox, raccoons, cats. Icy beneath. Again, lots of rabbit track sets with side by side front footprints.

LateFE88. Tracker Farm, NJ. Rabbit browsed rose since 1 JA.

6JE88. Baby rabbit tasting rocks, licking them, in Willowbrook streambed. Ate silver maple seed, elm seedling.

13DE88. Rabbits commonly placing front feet side by side on longer steps after about an inch of snow fell early last night atop the half inch that was there from 3 days previous.

1MR89. Rabbit’s front feet indicate the direction from which it came more reliably than the hind feet point to where it’s going, at least when it is traveling slowly. Look to pressure releases as well. In today’s crusty snow, the rabbit leans in the direction it’s going, so that in forward hops the toes are deepest. In an abrupt left turn the left edges of both hind prints were deepest.

12MR89. Hartz Lake. Dense poison ivy area between cemetery and prairie heavily browsed recently, mainly by rabbits.

25AP89. A rabbit nest, now empty with lining scattered. In the low, flattened blackberry tangle beside the nature trail at Willowbrook. Scattered taller brush on all sides.

These baby cottontails are weaned or nearly so. The mother simply stops coming to the nest and the young, driven by instinct and hunger, leave the nest and start learning which plants are good to eat.

3MY89. Willowbrook. Another rabbit nest yesterday on the side of the hill constructed of fill from marsh excavation. Like the nest last summer on the steep hillside at Clarks’, this hole was deep.

4MY89. Willowbrook. Yet another rabbit nest, this one in fairly thick brush 5 feet beyond the cleared edge of the main trail.

9MY89. I mistook moss for a cottontail. Sometimes the agouti pattern resembles mossy mottling.

22JE89. Rabbits eating common ragweed at Willowbrook.

31JL89. Willowbrook. Rabbits bending down Queen Anne’s lace and common ragweed and eating tops, along Nature Trail.

18AU89. Cottontails reaching common ragweed tips 4 feet off ground. Apparently, from bruise patterns and broken stems, they are pulling the plants down.

24NO89. Hartz Lake. Rabbit stopped, sat, turned. Entire left edges of both hind feet show pressure releases.

13DE89. Hartz Lake. No consistent ratio of track-set length to space between sets. A ratio of 3-4 common in shallow snow (front feet side by side, mostly). Degree of forward lean or toe-dig of back feet a better indicator of step length.

16FE90. Rabbit sitting on top of snow in Warrenville, IL, back yard, out of reach of anything edible, chewing cud. Bent down a couple of times to get feces for re-ingesting, taking them from anus with mouth.

16MY90. Rabbits have been eating fleabane tops.

12SE90. Watched young (nearly full grown) cottontail feeding, at close range. Eyes cranked forward, showing the tiniest bit of white at the back, as the rabbit examined and ate plants. Ate fruits and leaf blades of roadside rush and crabgrass. Seemed, however, to be using smell more than vision in checking out potential foods. I could get away with some movement when the eyes moved forward.

5JL96. Cottontails chasing each other 11a.m., picnic shelter area at Willowbrook. The chases were brief, sometimes extending into brush, but generally about 20 yards at most and often half that. They then would stop as the pursuer peeled off, but then often the chased animal approached, clearly soliciting another chase. Sometimes the chases were moderate in speed only, sometimes there were brief very fast spurts in the middle.

16MY98. Cottontail at Willowbrook eating blue violet leaves (nearby: flowering motherwort mint, garlic mustard).

28JA99. Cottontails this winter not visible during the day. Tracks indicate they are hiding in metal drainage culverts. Coyotes occasionally vainly try to dig them out or, perhaps are trying to spook them out.

10MY99. Cedar Springs, Michigan. Cottontails mating. Smaller adult chased larger, caught up, mounted and very quick small thrusts for a couple of seconds, then larger ran away and pursuit resumed. In woods clearing.

Here a mother rabbit at Mayslake covers her nest shortly after giving birth.

29AP09. Mayslake. As I drove in, I saw a rabbit digging in the lawn of the long parking lot island beside the drive. Three other rabbits were nearby, and one eventually chased her away from where she was digging and I saw him mate with her once. I thought she was still digging soil, but perhaps she was digging out grasses to cover the nest with (supported by her relative skinniness in photos). I returned at mid-day, found 5-6 babies in the nest there. Soil still beside the nest, but flattened. Babies born last night or this morning, it appears. (These rabbits eventually weaned and left the successful nest).

Spring Comes to Mayslake

by Carl Strang

Yesterday I looked back at late winter on Mayslake Forest Preserve. Today I want to share some early signs of spring. There still was a patch of ice on May’s Lake when the first migrant ducks, some lesser scaup, stopped by.

Flocks of sandhill cranes have been passing over on the nicer days.

We also have seen the first flowers of the season already, on silver maples.

Garlic mustard seedlings have germinated.

Soon I’ll resume my experiments on controlling this problem species. Other recent spring events have been chorus frogs singing, the first active chipmunks, red-bellied woodpeckers calling near where they nested last year, and the appearance of insects that overwintered as adults, including a box elder bug and a mourning cloak butterfly.

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