Words of Tracking: Common Walking Gaits

by Carl Strang


In an earlier set of posts (find under Methods category in sidebar to left) I introduced the alphabet of tracking, i.e., identification of the kind of animal that made the track. Today I want to take the next step toward reading the stories that footprints have to tell us. That is, to look at the basic gaits. A gait is a pattern of footprint placement, the building block from which an animal’s trail is built, and it also is the order in which the feet step as the animal moves. You will find the same gaits given different names in different references. I follow the terminology of my teachers at the Tom Brown school (link in left margin of the frame).


The pace gait is the usual traveling gait of certain animals, such as raccoons and bears, whose wide-bodied proportions favor swinging their weight from side to side, stepping with both left feet at once, then both right feet. If you try this, in a comfortable rather than lunging effort, you will find that your feet produce side by side pairs of footprints, left front foot beside right hind foot, right front foot beside left hind foot. Here is the pattern in a set of raccoon tracks.


Pace gait, raccoon

Pace gait, raccoon



The opposite of a wide body is a long skinny body, which we find in weasels. If your body is, to exaggerate, something like a rope with two little feet at each end, the easiest way for you to proceed will be to move both your front feet together, then both your hind feet, with the hind feet landing behind the front feet. This gait is called the bound. Often the feet are somewhat offset, an indication that the animal oriented its body axis at an angle rather than in line with its direction of travel.


Bound gait, mink

Bound gait, mink



Another gait in which the front feet move together and the hind feet move together is the gallop. This is common in rodents and rabbits, animals whose hind legs are more powerful than the front, so that the hind feet land in front of the front feet. Cottontails typically place one front foot in front of the other, while rodents such as mice and squirrels, as well as masked shrews, place their front feet side by side (in the photo the shrew is moving left to right).


Gallop gait, cottontail

Gallop gait, cottontail


Gallop gait, masked shrew

Gallop gait, masked shrew



There is one circumstance in which cottontails place their front feet side by side, however. I will leave this one for you to puzzle over. Look for examples this winter, see if you can figure it out. Here’s a photo so you know what to look for.


Cottontail gait puzzle

Cottontail gait puzzle



The final common walking gait is typical of hoofed animals (white-tailed deer in NE Illinois), the dog family and the cat family, as well as us (when do we walk on all fours?). This one is called the diagonal walk, and unlike the others the feet move separately in a sequence: left front, right hind, right front, left hind. In this case the left feet come down in close to the same place, and so do the right feet. The overall impression is a zigzag between right foot pairs and left foot pairs, hence the name for this gait.


Diagonal walk gait, wolf (Isle Royale)

Diagonal walk gait, wolf (Isle Royale)



There are other gaits, but they are less common or are special cases and will be reserved for later. Also, the connections I have made between animals and gaits are limited to routine travel. When circumstances require, animals shift out of their normal walking gait. For instance, a raccoon in an extreme hurry does not, cartoon like, do a real fast pace gait. Instead, it shifts into a gallop. Tracks outside the normal pattern are a clue that something unusual, therefore interesting, was happening.


  1. January 12, 2009 at 12:12 pm

    […] a student of tracking has begun to grasp the gait patterns, that knowledge provides the foundation for another skill: following the animal’s trail. Most of […]

  2. January 27, 2009 at 12:14 pm

    […] gaits I introduced earlier  were the basic ones, used by most mammals as they travel. There are others, however, and today I […]

  3. January 30, 2009 at 12:20 pm

    […] is in the diagonal walk gait. The normal gait pattern for mink is the bound, as introduced in an earlier post. When an animal is out of its usual gait, something interesting may be happening. Not only has this […]

  4. February 16, 2009 at 12:13 pm

    […] couple days ago I saw an example of a puzzle I posed a few weeks ago, and decided it is time to provide an answer. The cottontail rabbit typically uses the gallop as […]

  5. February 26, 2009 at 12:10 pm

    […] have too much trouble (though as you can see in the next photo, the skunk had to down-shift to a diagonal walk gait where the snow was a little […]

  6. May 3, 2009 at 11:21 am

    […] in bucks the chest is wider than the hips. Comparing the placement of front and hind feet in the diagonal walk gait  when the deer were walking straight, I found that there were two […]

  7. January 21, 2011 at 7:26 am

    […] tracks because of the side-by-side pairs of footprints, indicative of the raccoon’s distinctive pace gait. Their size and spacing are consistent with the raccoon’s body size. Raccoon activity was […]

Leave a Reply to Skunk Walkabout and Snow Crust « Nature Inquiries Cancel reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google photo

You are commenting using your Google account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: